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Slide 1 :
Abnormal Psychology With thanks to Ron Comer for use of his definitions.
Slide 2 :
Defining Mental Disorder Defining Mental Disorders Discussing Particular Abnormalities Therapy Regimens
Slide 3 :
Defining Mental Disorder THREE CLASSIC SYMPTOMS of MENTAL DISORDER: Hallucinations: false sensory experiences Delusions: disorders of logical thinking Affective Disturbances: inappropriately strong or absent emotional response
Slide 4 :
Defining Mental Disorder No Mild Moderate Severe Disorder Disorder Disorder Disorder
Slide 5 :
Defining Mental Disorder Distress Maladaptiveness Irrationality Unpredictability Unconventionality Observer Discomfort
Slide 6 :
Defining Mental Disorder Reasons for differences in rates of disorders and types of symptoms -- are there real cultural differences? Personality / cognitive style Definitions of mental illness Acceptability of mental (as opposed to physical) distress Usage of medical and psychological services Views of the origins and treatment of illness
Slide 7 :
Defining Mental Disorder
Slide 8 :
Defining Mental Disorder Homosexuality was defined as a disorder in previous DSM Manuals
Slide 9 :
Defining Mental Disorder It is current practice in China to institutionalize members of the Falun Gong religion
Slide 10 :
Defining Mental Disorder Sarafem – another name for Prozac
Slide 11 :
Types of Mental Disorders Personality Disorders Anxiety Disorders Mood Disorders Other Disorders
Slide 12 :
Personality Disorders Inflexible pattern of inner experience and outward behavior which deviates markedly from one’s culture. Paranoid, Schizoid, Antisocial, Borderline, Narcissistic, Histrionic, Avoidant, Dependent
Slide 13 :
Antisocial Personality Shows a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of other people’s rights. Up to 3.5% manifest an antisocial personality disorder (APA, 1994) Symptoms: Repeatedly deceitful, irresponsible with money, impulsive, tendency to start fights, egocentric, no regard for safety of self or others.
Slide 14 :
Antisocial Personality Tend to be skillful at manipulating people. Are not distressed by the pain they cause, often perceived as lacking any moral conscience. “They glibly rationalize their actions by characterizing their victims as weak and deserving of being conned or stolen from” (Comer, 1997)
Slide 15 :
Borderline Personality Characterized by mood shifts, unstable self-image, and impulsivity. 2% of the U.S. population suffer from Borderline personality disorder (APA, 1994). Symptoms: Intense, conflict filled relationships, overstep relationship boundaries, fear of desertion, suicidal thoughts, self-mutilation, emptiness, boredom, confusion about identity.
Slide 16 :
Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Phobias Panic Disorder Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Slide 17 :
Generalized Anxiety Disorder General “free floating” anxiety about everything 3.8% of the U.S. population exhibit symptoms (APA, 1994). Symptoms: Restlessness, Quick to Fatigue, Trouble Concentrating, Irritability, Muscle Tension, Sleep Problems.
Slide 18 :
Phobia Persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object 10-11% of the U.S. population exhibit symptoms (Magee et al., 1996). Common Phobias: Heights, Death, Snakes, Interacting with others, Crowds, injections, doctors, spiders, flying.
Slide 19 :
Phobia Luposlipaphobia: The fear of being pursued by timber wolves around a kitchen table while wearing socks on a newly waxed floor (Gary Larson, the far side)
Slide 20 :
Panic Disorders Periodic, discrete bouts of panic that occur abruptly and peak within 10 minutes 2.3 % of the U.S. population suffer from Panic Disorder (Weissman et al., 1997) Symptoms: Palpitations of the heart, shortness of breath, chest pains, choking sensation, faintness, dizziness
Slide 21 :
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Obsession – Persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that invade consciousness Compulsion – Repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that a person feels compelled to perform to reduce distress 2% of the U.S. population suffer from OCD (APA, 1994).
Slide 22 :
PTSD Distinct patterns of behavior that arise in reaction to a psychologically traumatic event. 7.8% of U.S. population will experience at least one episode in their lifetime Symptoms: Re-experiencing traumatic event, avoidance, reduced responsiveness, increased arousal (anxiety/guilt)
Slide 23 :
Mood Disorders Unipolar depression Bipolar Depression
Slide 24 :
Unipolar Depression Severe, long lasting, and debilitating sadness. 5-10% of the U.S. population experiences clinical depression in a given year (Kessler et al, 1994) Symptoms: Feelings of sadness, loss of sense of humor, lack of drive, suicidal thoughts, anxiety, staying in bed, easily distracted
Slide 25 :
Bipolar Depression Depressive episodes followed by manic episodes. Mania – dramatic and inappropriate elevations of mood. 1.5% of the U.S. population suffers from bipolar depression (Kessler et al, 1994) Symptoms: hyperactivity, insomnia, arbitrary decision making, delusions.
Slide 26 :
Other Disorders Memory disorders (Alzheimer’s, Amnesia, Korsakoff’s ) Perceptual disorders (Agnosia, Prosopagnosia, Neglect, Balint’s) Language disorders (Broca’s Aphasia, Wernicke’s Aphasia) Physical Disorders (Anorexia, Bulimia, Obesity) Misc. (Phantom Limb, Imposter Effect, Autism, Schizophrenia)
Slide 27 :
Therapy Regimens Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Therapy Psychoanalytic Therapy Humanistic Therapy Family Therapy Biomedical Therapy
Slide 28 :
Why would somebody be afraid of white furry objects? Behavioral Therapy
Slide 29 :
Systematic Desensitization Behavioral Therapy
Slide 30 :
Flooding Behavioral Therapy
Slide 31 :
Aversion Therapy Ipecac Alcohol + + = = Sobriety Behavioral Therapy
Slide 32 :
Other Behavioral Therapies Social Learning Therapy Operant Conditioning Therapy Behavioral Therapy
Slide 33 :
Constant Repetition of Negative thoughts leads to abnormality Cognitive Therapy
Slide 34 :
Nobody likes me ? Even people who like me occasionally get mad at me I’m a moron ? I’m smart, even if I do make mistakes now and then I’m worthless ? I’m a good person My jokes are bad ? It’s not my fault that the class has no sense of humor. Cognitive Therapy
Slide 35 :
Freud and his famous couch Psychoanalytic Therapy
Slide 36 :
Freud saw many things as having sexual overtones Psychoanalytic Therapy
Slide 37 :
Carl Jung Collective Unconcious and Archetypes The shadow archetype Psychoanalytic Therapy
Slide 38 :
The patient best knows his or her own mind, the psychologist’s job is to facilitate self-therapy Eliza the Online Therapist Humanistic Therapy
Slide 39 :
The 3 necessary elements of Humanistic Therapy Unconditional Positive Regard Genuineness Non-Directive Guidance Humanistic Therapy
Slide 40 :
Interpersonal Dynamics lead to Abnormality Switch Rolls Switch Power structure (as in The Simpsons) Group Discussion Family Therapy
Slide 41 :
Slide 42 :
Psychosurgery Biomedical Therapy
Slide 43 :
Electroconvulsive Therapy Induce small seizures to correct for chemical imbalances Biomedical Therapy
Slide 44 :
Homework Watch “Girl Interrupted” “What is Borderline Personality Disorder?” Read the clinical psych jokes “Why Mental Health Professionals don’t help” Insanity in Literature Dr. Joy (or other pop psych guru)
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