Achievement Motivation and effort regulation during a 90 min soccer match
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Slide 1 :
Achievement Motivation and Intensity of Effort Regulation During a 90 min Soccer Match Tor-Oskar Thomassen, Finnmark University College, NORWAY Hallgeir Halvari, Buskerud University College, NORWAY
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Introduction In this study we wanted to see if there were any relations between achievement motives, achievement goals and intensity of effort regulation in soccer match. The concept of effort is characterized by intensive energy exertion on instrumental behaviour (Brehm & Self, 1989). Soccer is a sport with high intensity in 90 (2 x 45) minutes, and recognised by its constant changes of movement for each individual player. Intensity is an expression for physical effort. A very common parameter used to indicate intensity is heart rate (HR). High performance in soccer is supposed to demand an intensity which is not maximal, but rather moderate in relation to the duration of the game, players` endurance and aerobic capacity.
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Achievement Motivation and Effort The motive to achieve success is defined as a disposition to expect positive affects (e.g., pleasure, pride) to occur in situations perceived as challenging (i.e., situations for which the probability of success is about 50%). Conversely, the motive to avoid failure is characterized as a disposition to expect negative affects (e.g., shame and embarrassment) to occur in situations where the probability of success is perceived to be insecure (for similar definitions, see Atkinson, 1964; Gjesme, 1981; McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953). In sport, Roberts (1975) showed that approach-oriented (i.e., the motive to achieve success, Ms, is stronger than the motive to avoid failure, Mf) college students preferred moderate risk, while avoidance-oriented (Mf > Ms) avoided such situations. In soccer, motivational arousal is supposed to increase with increasing intensity of effort demands up to the point where the player reach his anaerobic threshold (in this study defined as 85 % of HRmax). Intensity of effort at the anaerobic threshold is defined as moderately difficult and risky, because - if this threshold is surpassed, prolonged intensity implies too high costs and exhaustion.
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Achievement Goals and Effort Consistent with theory, a mastery goal orientation is reported positively related to performance, reported effort, and task choice in sport (Chi, 1994; VanYperen & Duda, 1997), and in relation to self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (Dempsey, Kimiecik, & Horn, 1993; Kimiecik, Horn, & Shurin, 1996). There is strong evidence indicating that a high mastery goal orientation is associated with greater effort than low mastery goal orientation (Cury, Biddle, Sarrazin, & Famose, 1997; Kavassanu & Roberts, 1996; Sarrazin, Roberts, Cury, Biddle, & Famose, 2002; Wang, Biddle, & Elliot, inpress). However, in soccer, this does not mean maximal effort. Instead, self-regulation related to a positive outcome in soccer implies moderate intensity of effort in relation to the duration of the match and players capacities.
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Hypothesis The following hypothesis were outlined: Hypothesis 1: The motive to achieve success should be positively correlated with time of moderate intensity of effort during a soccer match. Hypothesis 2: The motive to avoid failure should be negatively correlated with time of moderate intensity of effort during a soccer match Hypothesis 3: The mastery goal orientation should be positively correlated with time of moderate intensity of effort during a soccer match. Hypothesis 4: The performance-avoidance goal should be negatively correlated with time of moderate intensity of effort during a soccer match. Hypothesis 5: Moderate intensity of effort during the first period of the match should mediate the positive links between the motive to achieve success (hypothesis 5a) and the mastery goal (hypothesis 5b), respectively, and moderate intensity of effort during the second period of the match.
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Methods and Procedure. Subjects The study was carried out among 55 male amateur soccer players who voluntarily accepted to participate. The players represented 5 different soccer team, three team from second and two from third division. About half of the players were students, and the rest were active in different job occupations. The data was collected in pre-season training matches called “Winter-league”. The matches was played in February and March in an indoor soccer hall with artificial grass.
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Design A longitudinal correlational design was chosen with measures of achievement motives, achievement goals and individuals maximal heart rate taken at Time 1, intensity of effort regulation in soccer for the first 45 min of the match (Time 2, after 14 days), and followed by intensity of effort regulation for the second 45 min period of the match (Time 3). Different kind of tests were used.
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Assessment of Achievement Motives and Achievement Goal Orientation Concepts Example Items The motive to achieve success (Ms) “I like to do things that I am not quite certain “The Achievement Motive Scale” that I can handle”. ( Gjesme & Nygård, 1970). The motive to avoid failure (Mf) “ I dislike to work with things where I am “The Achievement Motive Scale” uncertain about the outcome”. ( Gjesme & Nygård, 1970). Mastery goal orientation (MG) “I prefer physical activity tasks that really “Achievement Goal Questionnaire” challenges me so I can learn new things”. (Elliot & Church, 1997). Performance – approach goal (PG) “I want to do well to show my ability to family, “Achievement Goal Questionnaire” friends, coaches and others” (Elliot & Church, 1997). Performance - avoidance goal (PAG) “I often think to myself: what if I do badly?” Achievement Goal Questionnaire (Elliot & Church, 1997).
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Assessment of Maximal Aerobic Power and Maximal Heart Rate (HR) Procedures The players were running on a Woodway treadmill (inclination 30), with gradually increased intensity from low to maximum by increasing the speed on the treadmill. The maximal oxygen uptake was measured directly by Senso-Medics V-max 29 oxygen analyzer. The procedure to measure maximal heart rate was to continue running on the treadmill until exhausting after reaching VO2max. The maximum heart rate was measured by the heart monitor Polar Accurex Plus. .
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Assessment of Intensity of Effort Regulation The matches were played in an indoor soccer hall with artificial grass . Heart rate frequency (HR) of each player during the match was measured by using “Polar Accurex Plus”. Based on maximal heart rates the intensity of effort regulation could be divided in 3 different levels: Level 1: Time of match below 75% of individual maximum heart rate (HRmax). Level 2: Time of match between 75% and 85% of individual maximum HR. Level 3: Time of match above 85% of the individual maximum HR.
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41,2% Max HR this player: 185 Average Heart Rate (HR) in 1. period: 153 (82,7 % of max HR) Average Heart Rate in 2.period: 151 (81,6% of max HR) 46,9% 11,9% 41,2% 42,6% 38,3% 19,1% Start Match Break End 157 -85% 139- 75% Figure 1 Heart frequencies from a match in 2. division. The player is a left back in a 4-5-1 system. His maximum Heart Rate is 185 beats pr minute. His anaerobic threshold is 85% of max HR, 157 beats pr minute. The figure shows percent time of the match (1. and 2. period) in different intensity zones (belov 75% of max HR, between 75-85% of max HR and above 85% of max HR)
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Results Both the motive to achieve and the mastery goal are significantly positively correlated with intensity of effort regulation between 75-85% of maximum (first 45 min period, (supporting hypotheses 1 and 3) The motive to achieve is also significantly negatively correlated with intensity of effort regulation above 85% of maximum. For the second 45 min period the same pattern of correlations are presented for the motive to achieve, whereas correlations for the mastery goal were marginally significant. (see table 1) The correlations between avoidance measures and intensity of effort regulation between 75-85% of maximum are not significant (rejecting hypotheses 2 and 4). Instead, results yielded significant curve- linear associations between the motive to avoid failure and the performance-avoidance goal, respectively, and time of moderate effort intensity (figure 2). Low avoidance scores accounted for the highest time of moderate effort, whereas moderate avoidance scores accounted for the lowest time of moderate effort during the match. The figure 2 also show that low avoidance score accounted for the shortest time above 85% of HRmax and moderate avoidance scores accounted for the longest time in high intensitive sone (high effort)
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Results continued The results also show that time of moderate effort regulation in the first period of the match mediates the positive relation between the motive to succeed and the mastery goal, respectively, and time of moderate effort regulation in the second period (supporting hypothesis 5a and 5b) (see figure 3)
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Table 1 Pearson correlations among variables (N = 55) ___________________________________________________________________________________ Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. The motive to achieve success (Time 1) -- 2. The motive to avoid failure (Time 1) -.31* -- 3. Mastery goal (Time 1) .45** -.39** -- 4. Performance approach goal (Time 1) -.12 -.05 .34* -- 5. Performance avoidance goal (Time 1) -.47 .59*** -.41** .21 -- Effort regulation in first 45 min. period (%) (Time 2): 6. Time above 85% of maximum -.38* .04 -.27 .03 .16 -- 7. Time between 75 – 85% of maximum .61*** -.15 .34* -.07 -.22 -.79*** -- 8. Time below 75% of maximum -.04 .09 .08 .01 -.03 -.76*** .20 -- Effort regulation in second 45 min. period (%) (Time 3): 9. Time above 85% of maximum -.31 .06 -.29 .14 .21 .79*** -.65*** -.57** -- 10. Time between 75 – 85% of maximum .45** -.11 .28 -.12 -.19 -.33* .66*** -.17 -.65*** -- 11. Time below 75% of maximum .04 .03 .14 -.06 -.10 -.76*** .30* .91*** -.76*** .01 -- ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ *p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001
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Regression Curves from Hierarchical Polynomial Multiple Regression Analysis Figure 2. Curve-linear associations between the motive to avoid failure and playing time between 75-85% and above 85% (dotted lines) of individual max HR
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Figure 3. Standardized regression coefficients for the mediator models, with playing time of moderate heart rate intensity in first period mediating the relation between the motive to achieve success (upper part of Figure) and the mastery goal (lower part of Figure), respectively, and playing time of moderate heart rate intensity in second period. Coefficients in parentheses is from the first model with only the motive to achieve success or the mastery goal, respectively, predicting playing time of moderate heart rate intensity in the second period. The other coefficients are from the full models. Fit indices for the full motive to achieve success structural mediation model (upper part of Figure) are: X2 = 4.40, df = 8, p = .82, RMSEA = 0.00, NNFI = 1.0, CFI = 1.0, and IFI = 1.0. For the full mastery goal structural mediation model (lower part of Figure) fit indices are: X2 = 0.68, df = 1, p = .41, RMSEA = 0.00, NNFI = 1.0, CFI = 1.0, and IFI = 1.0. * p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001
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Conclusions This is a study indicating that the motive to achieve and the mastery goal is not positively associated with effort in general (as shown in many studies using self-report measures of effort) High performance in soccer is supposed to demand an effort intensity that is more moderate Thus, approach-motivated players (indicated by both the motive to achieve and the mastery goal) are supposed to self- regulate their effort to moderate levels, in relation to their aerobic capacity and task demands, in order to succeed.
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As far as the motive to achieve is concerned, the results do strongly support the Achievement Motivation Model proposed by Atkinson (1957; 1964). The motive to achieve is not only strongly positively correlated with moderately risky intensity of effort, but negatively correlated with too risky intensity. When the motive to achieve is controlled for, the mastery goal is not significantly correlated with moderate intensity of effort, whereas the motive to achieve yields a strong positive effect.
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Theoretical and practical implications The results support that the players with high approach and low avoidance motivation self-regulate their intensity and effort in a way which meet the tactical and technical demands in football in an optimal way. On the other hand, the players who are most of the time above 85% of maximum heart rate during a soccer match, will have problems to stay the whole match with high performance. Relative high total amount of time over 85% of maximum heart rate will cause accumulation of lactate in the muscles, and reduce the ability of optimal technical performance. Both moderate and high avoidance scores are associated with the highest amount of time above 85% of maximum in our study. Accordingly, in a soccer match, it is not most important to reach maximum effort (get the highest level of heart rate) during a match, but instead find a moderate intensity in order to take advantage of their technical and tactical skills in an appropriate way and to achieve a highest possible performance.
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The results from this study have important theoretical and practical implications. First, players can be more aware of their effort exerted in soccer and learn to regulate their effort in an optimal way. Second, coaches should emphasize the importance of training in order to produce increases in maximal aerobic power among players. Increased maximal aerobic power will facilitate effort regulation to an optimal or moderate level even under hard periods of the match. (Thomassen & Weydahl, 2007 , inpress)
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Thank You very much for Your attention!
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