Antiretroviral Drugs


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1 : 1 Antiretroviral therapy ARVs cannot cure the HIV virus ARVs prevent the virus from multiplying: - reduce the levels of virus in the blood - immune system has opportunity to recover People on ARVs can remain well for many years
2 : 2 Antiretroviral therapy Three classes of antiretroviral drugs: nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) Protease inhibitors (PIs) Life-long triple therapy HAART: “highly active antiretroviral therapy” Antiretrovirals are on WHO essential drugs list
3 : 3
4 : 4 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year Number of AIDS deaths Italy Spain Germany United Kingdom Continued impact of HAART on AIDS deaths in some Western European countries, 1998-2002 Source: HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe (2002). End-of-year report. Data compiled by the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS
5 : 5
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8 : 8 Antiretrovirals - challenges High costs Must be taken for life Must be taken correctly 95% of the time Potential for side effects Regular laboratory monitoring required Resistance
9 : 9 Resistance Drug resistance = organism is no longer sensitive to the drug Antiretrovirals, Anti TB drugs, STI drugs Influenced by: characteristics of the organism inadequate dose incorrect dosage interval inadequate treatment period Using combinations of drugs reduces potential for resistance
10 : 10
11 : 11 HIV and TB treatment programs Before starting HIV or TB treatment programs, think about: What factors influence whether people will: take the right dose at the right time take the drug for the required period of time (ARVs for life)

 

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