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Autism A report by: Kimberlee Anne A. Tan
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Pervasive Developmental Disorders Also called “Autism Spectrum Disorders” Characterized by: Pervasive and usually severe impairment of reciprocal social interaction skills Communication deviance Restricted stereotypical behavioral patterns
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Why Autism? 3.4 per 1,000 children have autism higher than the rates for cerebral palsy (2.8 per 1,000 children), hearing loss (1.1 per 1,000 children) and vision impairment (0.9 per 1,000 children)~ Center of Disease Control and Prevention—2004 1:91 in 2009 from 1:150 in 2007 Approximately 67 million people worldwide are affected by autism
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Why Autism? at least 600,000 families are estimated to be affected with autism in the Philippines alone fastest rising developmental disability that will be diagnosed more than diabetes, cancer and AIDS combined in the coming years.
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What is autism?
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Autism Complex disability that is typically apparent during the first 3 years of life Severe and pervasive impairment in several areas such as Reciprocal skills Communication skills (+) of stereotyped behavior 4x more prevalent in boys
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Causes: Detached professional parents No longer accepted Increase levels of serotonin Neuro-biological damage and stress during pregnancy Related to MMR Proven otherwise by CDP Unknown Genetically linked
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Diagnosis: DSM-IV Criteria Qualitative social interaction impairments (2) Impairment in the use of nonverbal behavior—eye-to-eye contact, facial expression, body posture and social interaction gestures Inability to establish developmentally-appropriate peer relationships Failture to spontaneously seek opportunities to interact with people Poor social and emotional reciprocity
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Qualitative Communication impairments (1) Delay/total lack of language development Stereotyped and patterned language Lack of varied, developmentally appropriate spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play
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Repetitive and restricted stereotyped patterns of behaviors, activities and interests (1) Marked preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest abnormal in focus or intensity Inflexible adherence to nonfunctional routines or rituals Stereotyped repetitive motor mov’ts Persistent preoccupation with objects or components
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Prognosis Improving or deteriorating condition Improves Language development Start communicating Deteriorates Effect of hormonal changes Difficulty meeting with complex social demands
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Treatment special education behavioral management Speech therapy occupational therapy pharmacologic
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Pharmacologic treatment Antipsychotics: Haloperidol (Haldol) Risperidone (Risperidal) Other meds: Naltrexone (Revia) Doprimine (Anafranil)
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Nursing Management Have an up-to-the-moment knowledge of the disorder Be patient and creative Always maintain a safe environment Stay alert for self-injurious behaviors, such as head-banging, hair pulling, and biting or scratching oneself (which may present as scars or open wounds on the hands or wrists)
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Thanks for listening! =) TGodBTGlory!
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References: Videbeck, Sheila (2011)Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Antai-Otong, Deborah (2008) Psychiatric Nursing (2nd edition) Simpson, Richard (2005) Autism Spectrum Disorders Keltner, et.al. (2007) Psychiatric Nursing wikianswers.com http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/autism-statistics.html
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