Add to your Conference/Group
Add your comments:
Insert YouTube Videos inside your Slideworld presentation Copy and paste the video URL from YouTube, choose where to insert the video, and press “Submit”. The video will play in your slideshow after sometime.
Enter YouTube video URL
Enter Slide No where you want to insert youtube videos
on Apr 06, 2010 Says :
Post a comment
Post Comment on Twitter
Post Comment on SlideWorld
Subscribe to follow-up comments
SlideWorld will not store your password. SlideWorld will maintain your privacy.
Subscribe to follow-up comments
, favourited this 1 Years ago.
, favourited this 3 Years ago.
Slide 1 :
A Look into Current Research and Future Prospects BIONIC EYE
Slide 2 :
Blindness Inability to see
Slide 3 :
Causes of Blindness Damage to: Clear Structures in the eye, that allow the light to pass through The nerves within the eye Optic Nerve Brain
Slide 4 :
Bradley’s Research Breakthrough in 1960 First electrical stimulation of Visual Cortex Bright spots called phosphenes produced
Slide 5 :
Why we should be optimistic? The Success of : Cardiac pacemakers as neural prosthesis Cochlear implants to restore hearing to the deaf Rapid developments in : VLSI design Micro- fabrication technology
Slide 6 :
Overview Biology of the Eye MIT – Harvard Device ASR – Artificial Silicon Retina MARC – Multiple Unit Artificial Retina Chip Set System
Slide 7 :
BIONIC EYE ? Bio-electronic eye Electronic device which replaces functionality of a part or whole of the eye Used for replacing functionality (or) Adding functionality to the eye
Slide 8 :
Structure of the Eye
Slide 9 :
Slide 10 :
The Eye with Retina
Slide 11 :
Diseases of the Eye Retinitis Pigmentosa Macular Degeneration
Slide 12 :
Retinitis Pigmentosa Hereditary Genetic Disease Peripheral Rods degenerate Gradually progresses towards center of eye Spares the foveal region Tunnel vision results
Slide 13 :
Macular Degeration Genetically Related Cones in Macula region degenrate Loss or damage of central vision Peripheral Retina spared Common among old people
Slide 14 :
Retinitis Pigmentosa( Opthalmoscope View ) NORMAL EYE DEFECTIVE EYE
Slide 15 :
Macular Degeneration(Opthalmoscope View) NORMAL EYE DEFECTIVE EYE
Slide 16 :
Regions of Implantation Retina Optic Nerve Lateral geniculate body Visual Cortex
Slide 17 :
MIT-Harvard device Features Epi-Retinal Approach Microelectrode array replaces damaged photoreceptors Power source – Laser(820nm wavelength) Image Acquisition - Using CCD Camera Patient spectacle holds the camera and power source
Slide 18 :
Site of Implant
Slide 19 :
Implant Structure Layers 1- Photodiode Array 2- Polyimide strip 3- Stimulator chip Electrodes on other end of Polyimide strip
Slide 20 :
Working of the System - 1 CCD camera input – External light intensity CCD output amplitude-modulates laser source This hits photodiode array of implant This in turn powers stimulator chip (SC)
Slide 21 :
Working of the System - 2 SC drives current to electrodes facing retina This excites the ganglionic cells > axons > optic nerve > visual cortex in occipital lobe of brain Brain helps in perceiving an image
Slide 22 :
The Whole Picture
Slide 23 :
Advantages Very Early in the visual pathway No Batteries implanted within body No complicated surgical procedure Power Requirement – ¼ of milliwatt
Slide 24 :
Disadvantages Axons b/w electrodes and ganglionic cells Other axons get excited – unwanted perception of large blur Extra circuitry required for downstream electrical input
Slide 25 :
Artificial Retina Prosthesis using ASR (Artificial Silicon Retina)
Slide 26 :
The Eye Human Eye is similar to a camera Macula provides the highest resolution of the image which we see. Macula is comprised of multiple layers of cells which process the initial “analog”light energy entering the eye into “digital” electrochemical impulses. Human eye has nearly 100 million photoreceptors.
Slide 27 :
Need for ASR Retinitis Pigmentosa(RP) and Age related Macular degeneration (ARMD) are Progressive blinding disorders of the outer retina which involve degeneration of the neurons. There are no proven effective therapeutic remedy for these disorders . Some of Methods employed to slow or halt the disease time course are Use of Intravitreal injection of certain growth factors. Identification of specific gene mutations has led to the development of the gene therapy approaches. Transplantation can be effective in rescuing the photoreceptors from degeneration.
Slide 28 :
Need for ASR The first two methods are promising for treating patients early in the course of the degenerative process, they are of relatively modest value for the patients in whom the photoreceptors have already degenerated. Besides the Genetic and the Anatomic approach , there is an need to find an alternative approach.
Slide 29 :
Fundamental idea behind ASR ASR is a solid state biocompatible chip which contains an array of photo receptors ,and is implanted to replace the functionality of the defective photoreceptors . Current generated by the device in response to light stimulation will alter the membrane potential of the overlying neurons and thereby activate the visual system. Visual sensations or “phosphenes” can be evoked by electrical stimulation of the different levels of the visual pathway. Phosphenes are evoked by the stimulation of the eyeball or the visual cortex. Artificial vision created by the controlled electric stimulation of the retina has color.
Slide 30 :
Approaches Towards Retinal Prosthetic Implantation Epiretinal Approach involves a semiconductor based device positioned on the surface of the retina to try to simulate the remaining overlying cells of the retina. Subretinal Approach involves implanting the ASR chip behind the retina to simulate the remaining viable cells.
Slide 31 :
Enhancement of the image quality using the ASR
Slide 32 :
Limitations Of ASR’s ASR is designed to interface and function with the retina that has partial outer retinal degeneration. ASR can be applied only when the photoreceptor cellular layer of the retina is damaged but the remaining cellular layers are still functional. ASR can be effectively applied to RP and AMD. Conditions amenable to treatment with ASR’s include some forms of long-term retinal detachment,Usher’s syndrome, Cone- Rod Dystrophy.
Slide 33 :
Sub-Retinal Approach The basic idea-”Alter the membrane potential” IMPLANT DESIGN Primitive devices Single photosensitive pixel(3mm in diameter) Neo devices The current micro photodiode array (MPA) is comprised of a regular array of individual photodiode subunits, each approximately 20×20-µm square and separated by 10-µm channel stops (37). The resulting micro photodiode density is approximately 1,100/m2.
Slide 34 :
IMPLANT features The size has decreased from 250um to 50um No external power supply 500nm to 1100nm wavelength response
Slide 35 :
MANUFACTURING PROCESS Implants are comprised of a doped and ion-implanted silicon substrate disk to produce a PiN (positive-intrinsic-negative) junction. Fabrication begins with a 7.6-cm diameter semiconductor grade N-type silicon wafer. For the MPA device, a photomask is used to ion-implant shallow P+ doped wells into the front surface of the wafer, separated by channel stops in a pattern of individual micro photodiodes. An intrinsic layer automatically forms at the boundary between the P+-doped wells and the N-type substrate of the wafer.
Slide 36 :
Slide 37 :
PROCESS (Contd.) The back of the wafer is then ion-implanted to produce a N+ surface. Thereafter, an insulating layer of silicon nitrate is deposited on the front of the wafer, covering the entire surface except for the well openings. A thin adhesion layer, of chromium or titanium, is then deposited over the P+ and N+ layers. A transparent electrode layer of gold, iridium/iridium oxide, or platinum, is deposited on the front well side, and on the back ground side. In its simplest form, the photodiode and electrode layers are the same size. However, the current density available at each individual micro photodiode subunit can be increased by increasing the photodiode collector to electrode area ratio.
Slide 38 :
Post Implant function and Inference Measurement procedure IR stimulation at 940nm on the ASR chip Recorded at the corneal surface using contact lens electrode Comparison of responses of gold, platinum and iridium electrodes Iridium based device has a longer persistence Stability of these electrodes
Slide 39 :
ASR implanted into the eye
Slide 40 :
BIO-COMPATIBILTY results The good news There is no progressive change in retinal appearance that may be associated with retinal toxicity. How do we know? ----”ERG and Ganzfeld stimulus has an answer” The Bad news Loss of photoreceptive layer over the region of implant which is expected due to deprival of oxygen and nutrients to those cells underlying the chip.
Slide 41 :
Multiple Unit Artificial Retina Chipset (MARC)
Slide 42 :
Slide 43 :
Platinum on Silicone Rubber Electrode Array
Slide 44 :
MARC Photoreceptor and Stimulating Pixel
Slide 45 :
Photograph of MARC Chip
Slide 46 :
MARC System Block Diagram
Slide 47 :
10x10 Stimulator Chip With Telemetry Decoding 10x10 Stimulator Chip With Telemetry Decoding
Slide 48 :
Block diagram of Image Acquisition System
Slide 49 :
MARC Hermetic Sealing and Positioning
Slide 50 :
Advantages of MARC system Compact Size – 6x6 mm Diagnostic Capability Reduction of stress upon retina
Slide 51 :
Conclusion Its been 40 years since Arne Larsson received the first fully implanted cardiac pacemaker at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. Researchers throughout the world have looked for ways to improve people's lives with artificial, bionic devices. Bionic devices are being developed to do more than replace defective parts. Researchers are also using them to fight illnesses. Providing power to run bionic implants and making connections to the brain's control system pose the two great challenges for biomedical engineering. We are now looking at devices like bionic arms, tongues, noses etc.
Slide 52 :
Where are we headed?
Slide 53 :
Women and eye disease
Diabetic eye disease
No Blade / Blade Fre...
Melanoma of the eye
Eye Diseases in Gene...
APPLIED ANATOMY OF T...
Free Powerpoint Templates
4 Years ago.
8508 Views, 3 favourite
Retinitis Pigmentosa; Macular Degeneration. Retinitis Pigmentosa. Hereditary Genetic Disease; Perip
Retinitis Pigmentosa; Macular Degeneration. Retinitis Pigmentosa. Hereditary Genetic Disease; Peripheral Rods degenerate; Gradually progresses towards …
More By User
Flag as inappropriate
Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate. If needed, use the
form to let us know more details.
Other Terms Of Service Violation