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on Oct 18, 2012 Says :
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Slide 1 :
Breast Cancer Bhaumika Sharma, MN
Slide 2 :
Female Breast Anatomy 2
Slide 3 :
Muscles 3 Breast has no muscle tissue There are muscles underneath the breasts separating them from the ribs
Slide 4 :
Female Breast Anatomy Breasts consist mainly of fatty tissue interspersed with connective tissue There are also less conspicuous parts lobes ducts lymph nodes 4
Slide 5 :
Breast Gland 5 Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes) arranged like the petals of daisy Inside each lobe are many smaller structures called lobules At the end of each lobule are tiny sacs (bulbs) that can produce milk
Slide 6 :
Ducts 6 Lobes, Lobules and bulbs, are linked by a network of thin tubes (ducts) Ducts carry milk from bulbs toward dark area of skin in the center of the breast (areola) Ducts join together into larger ducts ending at the nipple, where milk is delivered Duct Areola
Slide 7 :
Blood Vessels 7 Oxygen, nutrients, and other life-sustaining nourishment are delivered to breast tissue by the blood in the arteries and capillaries.
Slide 8 :
Lymphatic System 8 Lymph ducts: Drain fluid that carries white blood cells (that fight disease) from the breast tissues into lymph nodes under the armpit and behind the breastbone Lymph nodes: Filter harmful bacteria and play a key role in fighting off infection A network of vessels Lymph duct Lymph node
Slide 10 :
Normal Breast 10 Illustration © Mary K. Bryson
Slide 11 :
Breast Cancer (BC) Introduction: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among Nepalese women. Accounts for 6% of cancers in Nepal, in a higher of women aged less than 50 years, compared to older women in high-income countries.
Slide 12 :
Contd. Early detection of breast cancer is the most important method of reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with breast cancer. Screening for breast cancer in developed countries generally involves clinical examination and mammogram. (Singh, 2009)
Slide 13 :
BREAST CANCER IN THE WORLD 1.15 million new cases Incidence increasing in most countries 470 000 deaths Half of the global burden in low- and medium-resourced countries
Slide 14 :
WORLD-WIDE BURDEN OF BREAST CANCER: AROUND 2015 and 2030 AD 2015 2030 Cases 1,531,000 2,004,000 Deaths 549,000 737,500 GLOBOCAN 2002
Slide 15 :
Breast cancer incidence rates (age 35-74) in selected developed countries
Slide 16 :
Breast cancer incidence rates (age 35-74) in selected developing countries
Slide 17 :
Breast cancer mortality rates (age 35-74) in selected developed countries
Slide 18 :
Breast cancer mortality rates (age 35-74) in selected Asian countries
Slide 19 :
Lifetime Risk of Breast Cancer Age 20-29: 1 in 2,000 Age 30-39: 1 in 229 Age 40-49: 1 in 68 Age 50-59: 1 in 37 Age 60-69: 1 in 26 Ever: 1 in 8
Slide 20 :
Etiology and Risk Factors Etiology not known Risk Factors Age and ethnicity Risk increases with age, although the rate of increase slows after menopause. African American women under age 50 years have a higher age-specific incidence of breast cancer than that in Caucasian women.
Slide 21 :
Ovarian and Hormonal Function: Early menarche and late menopause lead to an increased total lifetime number of ovulatory menstrual cycles and a corresponding 30% to 50% increase in breast cancer risk. Women who experience natural menopause before age 45 years has risk for BC that is half that of the women whose menopause occurs after age 55 years.
Slide 22 :
Ovarian and Hormonal Function (Contd.) Likewise, oophorectomy before a woman reaches menopause lowers her risk of breast cancer by approximately two thirds. Both nulliparity and age over 30 years at first live birth are associated with a nearly doubled risk of subsequent breast cancer. The use of HRT has also demonstrated a small but significant increase in risk for BC in women who used it for more than 10 years.
Slide 23 :
Risk Factors (Contd.) Benign Breast Disease: Nonproliferative lesions (such as cysts, duct ectasia, mild hyperplasia and fibroadenoma) do not increase the risk of BC. Cellular atypia or atypical hyperplasia ( a proliferative disease ) can undergo histologic change associated with a higher risk of BC. Sclerosing adenosis increases the risk of breast cancer by approximately 70% Nearly 40% of women with a family history of BC and atypical hyperplasia subsequently have BC.
Slide 24 :
Risk Factors (Contd.) Family History: One of the known risk factors for BC BC due to the inheritance of a specific germline mutation fro eighter maternal or paternal realtives is rare. The BC susceptibility gene BRCA1 and BRCA2 (chromosome 17) and the p53 tumor suppressor gene have identified in fewer than 10% of all women with BC.
Slide 25 :
Family History (Contd.) Certain populations have higher incidence of BRCA mutations than the general population, they are native Icelanders and Ashkenazi Jews. Depending on the familial content, the lifetime risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer or both associated with carrying a mutation ranges from 50% to 85%.
Slide 26 :
Family History (Contd.) Women with BRCA2 mutation tend to have early onset (before age 50) . Genetic screening is the measure to tests these mutations.
Slide 27 :
Risk Factors (Contd.) Environmental and Dietary Factors: Those who receive mantle radiation for the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease, the increased incidence of BC have been reported particularly when they were younger than 20 years. Alcohol intake is the best-established dietary risk factor for BC. Moderate alcohol intake (two drinks per day) increases the risk of breast cancer by altering estrogen metabolism.
Slide 28 :
No correlation between BC risk and dietary fat intake, caffeine consumption.
Slide 29 :
GENDER - All women are at risk Age Family/Personal History Reproductive History Menstrual History Race Genetic Factors Breast Cancer Risk Factors that cannot be changed Radiation Treatment with DES(diethylstilbestrol)
Cervical Cancer Prev...
Cervical Cancer Scre...
Breast Cancer (PPT) ...
Risk factors for Bre...
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