Cancer Mind Map
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on Jul 20, 2012 Says :
Great idea. Serves to conceptualize the matter in a simple and comprehensive manner.
on Feb 16, 2012 Says :
I found the new technique more effective while presenting
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Slide 1 :
CANCER - MIND MAP Signs & Symptoms Prevention Dietary Medication Vaccination Treatments Surgery Chemotherapy Radiation Palliative care Local effects Systemic symptoms Metastasis Causes Diagnosis Chemicals Diet and exercise Infection Heredity Carcinoma Sarcoma CANCER Breast cancer Brain cancer Cervical cancer Heart cancer Types Lung cancer Colorectal cancer Prostrate cancer Esophageal cancer Blastoma Germ cell tumor Lymphoma Pathology
Slide 2 :
Cancer known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors.
Slide 3 :
When cancer begins it invariably produces no symptoms with signs and symptoms only appearing as the mass continues to grow or ulcerates. The findings that result depends on the type and location of the cancer.
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Local symptoms may occur due to the mass of the tumor or its ulceration. For example mass effects from lung cancer can cause blockage of the bronchus resulting in cough or pneumonia.
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General symptoms occur due to distant effects of the cancer that are not related to direct or metastatic spread. These may include: unintentional weight loss, fever, being excessively tired, and changes to the skin.
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Symptoms of metastasis are due to the spread of cancer to other locations in the body. They can include enlarged lymph nodes (which can be felt or sometimes seen under the skin and are typically hard), hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) or splenomegaly.
Slide 7 :
Cancers are primarily an environmental disease with 90-95% of cases attributed to environmental factors and 5-10% due to genetics. Environmental, as used by cancer researchers, means any cause that is not genetic, not merely pollution.
Slide 8 :
Cancer pathogenesis is traceable back to DNA mutations that impact cell growth and metastasis. Substances that cause DNA mutations are known as mutagens, and mutagens that cause cancers are known as carcinogens.
Slide 9 :
Diet, physical inactivity, and obesity are related to approximately 30–35% of cancer cases. In the United States excess body weight is associated with the development of many types of cancer and is a factor in 14–20% of all cancer deaths.
Slide 10 :
Worldwide approximately 18% of cancers are related to infectious diseases. This proportion varies in different regions of the world from a high of 25% in Africa to less than 10% in the developed world.
Slide 11 :
The vast majority of cancers are non-hereditary ("sporadic cancers"). Hereditary cancers are primarily caused by an inherited genetic defect. Less than 0.3% of the population are carriers of a genetic mutation which has a large effect on cancer risk.
Slide 12 :
There are many types of cancer diagnosed each year, each affecting different parts of the body.
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Breast cancer (malignant breast neoplasm) is a type of cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.
Slide 14 :
A brain tumor, or tumour, is an intracranial solid neoplasm, a tumor (defined as an abnormal growth of cells) within the brain or the central spinal canal.
Slide 15 :
Cervical cancer is the term for a malignant neoplasm arising from cells originating in the cervix uteri. One of the most common symptoms of cervical cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Slide 16 :
Heart cancer is an extremely rare form of cancer that is divided into primary tumors of the heart and secondary tumors of the heart.
Slide 17 :
Lung cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue and, eventually, into other parts of the body.
Slide 18 :
Colorectal cancer, commonly known as bowel cancer, is a cancer from uncontrolled cell growth in the colon, rectum, or appendix. Symptoms typically include rectal bleeding and anemia which are sometimes associated with weight loss and changes in bowel habit
Slide 19 :
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers.
Slide 20 :
Esophageal cancer (or oesophageal cancer) is malignancy of the esophagus. There are various subtypes, primarily squamous cell cancer (approx 90-95% of all esophageal cancer worldwide) and adenocarcinoma.
Slide 21 :
Cancer prevention is defined as active measures to decrease the risk of cancer. The vast majority of cancer risk factors are due to environmental (including lifestyle) factors, and many of these factors are controllable.
Slide 22 :
While many dietary recommendations have been proposed to reduce the risk of cancer, few have significant supporting scientific evidence. The primary dietary factors that increase risk are obesity and alcohol consumption.
Slide 23 :
The concept that medications can be used to prevent cancer is attractive, and evidence supports their use in a few defined circumstances. In the general population NSAIDs reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.
Slide 24 :
Vaccines have been developed that prevent some infection by some viruses. Human papillomavirus vaccine (Gardasil and Cervarix) decreases the risk of developing cervical cancer.
Slide 25 :
Cancers are classified by the type of cell that the tumor cells resemble and is therefore presumed to be the origin of the tumor.
Slide 26 :
Cancers derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers, particularly in the aged, and include nearly all those developing in the breast, prostate, lung, pancreas, and colon.
Slide 27 :
Cancers arising from connective tissue (i.e. bone, cartilage, fat, nerve), each of which develop from cells originating in mesenchymal cells outside the bone marrow.
Slide 28 :
Cancers derived from immature "precursor" cells or embryonic tissue. These are also most common in children.
Slide 29 :
Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and dysgerminoma, respectively).
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These two classes of cancer arise from hematopoietic (blood-forming) cells that leave the marrow and tend to mature in the lymph nodes and blood, respectively.
Slide 31 :
Genetic testing for individuals at high-risk of certain cancers is recommended.
Slide 32 :
Many management options for cancer exist with the primary ones including: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and palliative care. Which treatments are used depends upon the type, location and grade of the cancer as well as the person's health.
Slide 33 :
Surgery is the primary method of treatment of most isolated solid cancers and may play a role in palliation and prolongation of survival. It is typically an important part of making the definitive diagnosis and staging the tumor .
Slide 34 :
Chemotherapy in addition to surgery has proven useful in a number of different cancer types including: breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, osteogenic sarcoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and certain lung cancers.
Slide 35 :
Radiation therapy involves the use of ionizing radiation in an attempt to either cure or improve the symptoms of cancer. It is used in about half of all cases and the radiation can be from either internal sources in the form of brachytherapy .
Slide 36 :
Palliative care is an approach to symptom management that aims to reduce the physical, emotional, spiritual, and psycho-social distress experienced by people with cancer. Unlike treatment that is aimed at directly killing cancer cells.
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