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Slide 1 :
1 Therapy Approaches Biological Treatment Surgery & Electroshock Psychotherapy
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2 Biological Treatments Drugs 1-Antipshchotic Drugs 2-Antidepressant Drugs 3-Tranquilizers 4-Lithium Carbonate
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3 1-Antipsychotic Drugs or Neuroleptics Good for treating psychosis and schizophrenia Example: Thorazine Reduce receptivity to dopamine or increase serotonin Reduce positive symptoms of schizophrenia Do not relieve other negative symptoms Can have dangerous side effect: tardive dyskinesia & neurolyptic malignant syndrome
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4 Antipsychotic Drugs and Schizophrenia Good for reducing: Agitation Delusions Hallucinations Can shorten schizophrenic episodes Offers little relief from: Jumbled thoughts Difficulty concentrating Inability to interact with others
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5 2-Antidepressant Drugs Treat depression, anxiety, phobias, OCD Example: Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil Non addictive but can cause side effects 1-Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (elevate levels of ser. & nor. by blocking inhibitors) 2-Tricyclic antidepressants (boost nor. & ser. by preventing their reabsorption) 3-Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (work on serotonin)
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6 3-Tranquilizers Prescribed for depressed mood, panic, and anxiety Example: Vlium Increase activity of neurotransmitter GABA If overused can result in tolerance and withdrawal
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7 4-Lithium Carbonate Prescribed for bipolar disorder Can be dangerous if not given in the right doze
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8 The Placebo Effect Kirsch and Sapirstein (1998) 7315 participants 41% of those receiving antidepressants experienced reduced symptoms. 31% of those given placebos also received reduced symptoms.
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9 Cautions about Drugs Placebo effect Relapse and drop out rates Dosage problems Long-term risks Overprescription Sometimes has to be with therapy
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10 Surgery & Electroshock Psychosurgery Shock Therapy
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11 Psychotherapy Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic/Existential Therapy in Social Context
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12 Psychodynamic Therapy Probes the past Doesn’t tackle the immediate problem The goal is insight Takes a long time Explores the unconscious Methods: free association, interpretation of dreams, & transference
Slide 13 :
13 Interpretation The analyst noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight. Resistance In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. Transference The patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
Slide 14 :
14 Behavioral Techniques Learning Conditioning Association between Environmental Stimuli + Response Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Association Reinforcement/ Stimulus-Response Punishment
Slide 15 :
15 Behavioral Techniques There are no mental processes (will, mind) Derived from classical and operant conditioning The focus is on changing the behavior Works on the immediate problem Focuses on the present
Slide 16 :
16 Ivan Pavlov Conditioning Learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism’s responses Stimulus-response Learning Classical Conditioning
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Slide 18 :
18 Classical Conditioning in Real Life Learning to like Learning to fear Accounting for Taste Reacting to Medical Treatment
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19 Operant Conditioning The behavior is more likely or less likely to occur based on its consequences. B. F. Skinner modified Pavlov’s concept. Skinner used reinforcement and punishment to enhance learning.
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20 Skinner’s Box
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21 Behavioral Techniques Systematic Desensitization/Counter Conditioning Aversive Conditioning Exposure Treatment (Flooding) Behavioral Records & Contracts Skills Training
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22 Systematic Desensitization Fear of Flying Read about safety Look at pictures of airplanes Visit an airport Take a short flight Take a long flight Fear is extinguished Counterconditioning
Slide 23 :
23 Cognitive Therapy Albert Ellis (Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy) Aaron Beck
Slide 24 :
24 Cognitive Distortions Labeling Mind Reading Exaggeration Unrealistic Expectations Belief in Entitlement Belief in Absolute Fairness
Slide 25 :
25 Fighting Dysfunctional Thought Hot Thoughts He is always mean to me. I did a lousy job. I deserve better. It’s not fair. That jerk! They’re driving me crazy. Cool Thoughts Maybe he had a bad day. It’ll be better next time But people are people Life is not fair. It’s his problem! Just don’t accept the ride.
Slide 26 :
26 Dysfunctional Thought
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27 Humanistic/Existential Therapy Works on self-fulfillment and self-actualization Does not delve into the past Helps the client think about the present and the future Helps people feel good about themselves Tackles conscious rather than unconscious thoughts
Slide 28 :
28 Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy Person-Centered Therapy The therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients’ growth.
Slide 29 :
29 Carl Rogers Client-Centered Therapy Offers unconditional positive regard No specific techniques Therapist should be warm, genuine and empathetic Client adopts these views and becomes self-accepting Promotes growth instead of curing illness.
Slide 30 :
30 Active Listening Paraphrase. Summarize the speakers words in your own words. Invite Clarification. Encourage the speaker to say more. Reflect Feelings. Reflect what you’re sensing from the speakers words and body language.
Slide 31 :
31 Existential Therapy Helps client explore meaning of existence Helps client choose a destiny Helps client accept self-responsibility.
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32 Therapy in Social Context Family Therapy Family Kaleidoscope Family Systems Group Therapy
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34 Communication Approach Virginia Satir Offered description of conjoint family therapy Emphasized growth enhancing techniques to evoke feeling and clarify family communications patterns (dance, massage, sensory awareness, group encounter techniques)
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35 Contextual Family Therapy Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy Effective family therapy must attend to family context especially to those dynamic and ethical connections – past, present, future – that bind families together
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36 The Structural Approach Salvador Minuchin The individual’s symptoms are best understood as rooted in the context of family transaction patterns. The family’s hierarchical organization The wholeness of the family system The interdependent functioning of its subsystems Enmeshment The family boundaries are too diffuse to allow for individual autonomy
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37 Strategic Approach Jay Haley The therapist devices a strategy for solving the client’s present problems Goals are clearly set Therapy is carefully planned to achieve these goals
Slide 38 :
38 Object Relations Introjects – the psychological representations of external objects The most powerful obstacle to change is people’s attachment to their parental introjects
Slide 39 :
39 Family Systems Theory Multigenrational Murray Bowen Conceptualizes the family as an emotional unit, a network of interlocking relationships, best understood when analyzed within a multi generational or historic framework Genograms
Slide 40 :
40 When Therapy Helps When clients have enough sense of self When clients have enough distress to motivate them to change When therapists are warm and empathetic When client and therapist establish a good rapport Hostile, negative clients are less likely to benefit
Slide 41 :
41 When Therapy Harms Bias on the therapist’s part because of gender, religion, or race Coercion by the therapist to accept his/her advice Coercion by the therapist to have sexual intimacy
Slide 42 :
42 Alternatives to Psychotherapy Community Psychologists Half-way houses Clubhouse model Foster care Family support groups Rehabilitation Psychologists Half-way houses Clubhouse model Foster care Family support groups
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Cognitive Therapy is related to Bipolar disorder and is used in its treatment. Treatment of disorde
Cognitive Therapy is related to Bipolar disorder and is used in its treatment. Treatment of disorders, symptoms, treatment include Biological, surgery , electroshock,Psychotherapy. Bipolar disorders can sometimes be very serious and treatment becomes impossible. - Slides
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