Dengue fever in Pakistan


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1 :
2 : All About Dengue Fever BY DR.MUHAMMAD ASGHAR (Ph.D) ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF AGRICULTURE (PP) PEST WARNING & QUALITY CONTROL OF PESTICIDES, LAHORE muhammad-asghar@hotmail.com
3 : Contents What is dengue fever Symptoms of dengue fever World distribution of Dengue Dengue outbreak in Asia and Pakistan Characteristics of the Aedes mosquito Life cycle of the Aedes mosquito How the Aedes mosquito transmit diseases How to prevent the spread of dengue fever Treatment of dengue fever Chemical Control of Vector of dengue fever
4 : What is dengue fever? Dengue Fever also known as break bone fever is an illness caused by infection with a virus (Flavivirus) transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti rarely the A.albopictus.
5 : World Distribution of Dengue 1999
6 : GLOBAL STATUS New infections annually: 50 million • Deaths: 24,000 annually • People at risk: 2.5-3 billion • Hospitalized cases: 500 000/year (90% of those affected are children) Leads to death in 5% of cases. About half of the world lives in “HOT ZONE”
7 : DENGUE OUT BREAK IN SOUTH EAST ASIA IN 2005
8 : DENGUE OUT BREAK IN PAKISTAN (2006)
9 : 18 November 2008 Punjab -799 confirmed cases and two deaths 754 cases –Lahore Ghulam Murtaza-from Sheikhupura "first patient with dengue to have died in Lahore".
10 : Symptoms of Dengue Fever Example of a skin rash due to dengue fever
11 : Symptoms of Dengue Fever Conti….. fever headaches muscle and joint pains, skin rash and vomiting. Low platelet count (<100,000/mm3) “leaky capillaries:”
12 : Symptoms of Dengue Fever Conti…..
13 : Characteristics of the Aedes Mosquito One distinct physical feature – black and white stripes on its thorax and legs. Bites during the day. Lays its eggs in clean, stagnant water. Close-up of an Aedes mosquito
14 : Only the female Aedes mosquito feeds on blood. This is because they need the protein found in blood to produce eggs. Male mosquitoes feed only on plant nectar. On average, a female Aedes mosquito can lay about 300 eggs during her life span of 14 to 21 days. Characteristics of the Aedes Mosquito
15 : Pupae Life cycle of the Aedes Mosquito Larvae Eggs
16 : How Do Aedes Mosquitoes Transmit Diseases... Mosquito bites and sucks blood containing the virus from an infected person. Virus is carried in its body. And passes the virus to healthy people when it bites them.
17 : Potential Breeding Grounds
18 : Potential Breeding Grounds
19 : Prevention…
20 : Prevent Aedes from Breeding! Personal prevention involves the use of mosquito nets, repellents, cover exposed skin, use of DEET-impregnated bednets, and avoiding endemic areas.
21 : Preventive measures
22 : Change water in vases on alternate days. Cover all the toilet bowls in the home. Preventive measures
23 : Remove water from flowerpot plates on alternate days. Preventive measures
24 : Turn over all pails and water storage containers. Seal off the overflow pipes of flushing cistern. Preventive measures
25 : Cover bamboo pole holders when not in use. Preventive measures
26 : Clear blockages and put Bti insecticide in roof gutters monthly. Preventive measures
27 : Do not litter. Rubbish such as cups and bottles can collect rain water and breed mosquitoes. Preventive measures
28 : Do not litter. Rubbish such as cups and bottles can collect rain water and breed mosquitoes. Preventive measures
29 : Treatment of Dengue Fever
30 : No licensed vaccine at present Effective, safe and affordable vaccine will not be available in the immediate future Dengue Vaccine?
31 : Fluids Rest Antipyretics (avoid aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) Monitor blood pressure, hematocrit, platelet count, level of consciousness. In case of severe bleeding, give fresh whole blood 20 ml/kg as a bolus. – Give platelet rich plasma transfusion exceptionally when platelet counts are below 5,000–10,000/ mm3. Dengue Treatment?
32 : Chemical Control of Vector of Dengue Fever
33 : The main tactic used in fighting Dengue is eradicating the mosquito. Add some granular insecticide to places that mosquitoes could potentially breed, such as flower vases and places where stagnant water could not be removed (try to remove all stagnant water. Don’t let it lay its eggs). Public spraying for mosquitoes is the most important aspect of this approach. The use of IGRs and Bacillus thuringiensis-14 (Bti) as larvicides in addition to temephos (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides also suggested.
34 : Thanks to all the honourable authors and websites from where I have taken some material

 

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