Effect of energy level, rice by products
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Effect of level and source of dietary energy and/or enzyme additions on productive performance and egg quality of Japanese quail hensF. A. M. AGGOOR1, Y. A. ATTIA2*, F. S. A. ISMAIL1, E. M. A. QOTA3 AND E. A.SHAKMAK1 1Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt.2Animal and Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University Damanhour, 22516, Egypt, e-mail: email@example.com , 3Animal Production Research Institute, Giza, Dokki, Egypt. Introduction The optimum utilisation of rice bran (RB) and broken rice (BR) as potential feedstuffs has not been achieved and may be restricted by their NSP, phytin and low amino acids (Farrell, 2006; Attia et al., 2001). For poultry, however, there are reports indicate that the inclusion of BR in the diets for laying hens at 20-26% (Chawla et al., 1980), and at 50% (Jadhao et al., 1999) decreased egg production. However, in literature, some successful studies are described in which RB (Ghazalah et al., 1990; El-Full et al., 2000; Attia et al., 2001) and BR (Tyagi et al., 1994) was included successfully in the laying hen diets to some extent. Enzymes, being multienzymes or phytase, may be a practical mean to improve poultry diets containing higher levels of NSP and/or anti-nutritional factors (Attia et al., 2001; Kies et al., 2001; Choct, 2006). Attia et al. (2001) concluded that phytase and multienzymes mixture partially compensated for the negative effect of RB on performance of laying hens. Objectives: The possibility of improving the nutritional value of all-mash vegetable diets containing 20% RB or BR in the high-energy diet (HE) or low energy diet (LE) level (2900 vs. 2700 kcal ME/kg diet) by Avizyme and phytase addition for JQ hens was investigated herein from day 43 to 98 of age. Materials and methods Four hundred and thirty two JQ pullets was assigned to (2?3?3) factorial design and fed from 14-98 d of age two energy levels (low 2700 and high 2900 kcal ME/kg diet), within each level, RB or BR was included at 0 or 20%, thus there were 6 main experimental diets. Each diet was fed without or with 1 g/kg of Avizyme 1500® (multienzymes containing 4000µ/g proteases, 300 µ /g of endo-1, 4-ß- xylanase, and 400 µ /g of a-amylase) or Ronozyme? P (CT)® phytase at 1000/750 FYT during growing/laying period/kg diet (Table 1, Attia et al., 2006). From 43 d of age, the experimental diets were adjusted to meet nutrient requirements for Japanese quail hens during the breeding period (NRC, 1994; Table 1). There were 24 females in each of the 18 dietary treatment groups distributed to 3 replicates with 8 females/replicate each. Pullets were fed ad libtium the tested diets in mash form and given free access to water. Pullets were kept on 16:8 light-dark cycle under similar condition. Available phosphorus and Ca of phytase supplemented-diets was adjusted by 0.10% diet according to phytase equivalent value. Individual records for BWG (g), and pen basis records for egg laying rate (ELR), egg weight (EW), egg mass (EM), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), energy conversion ratio (ECR) and age at 40% ELR were maintained from day 43 to 98 of age. Egg laid in two successive d was used to determine egg quality at 56 and 85 d of age as cited by Attia et al. (2001). Data of the laying period (43-98 d of age) were analyzed using three way analyses of variance of the General Linear Model (GLM) Procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS®, SAS Institute, 1990), and differences among means was compared using Duncan’s New multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955). Results and Discussion: 1.Feeding HE increased (p<0.05) age at 40% ELR, EW and BWG (Table 2). On the other hand, LE increased (p<0.05) ELR, EM, FI, and improved (p<0.05) FCR, ECR, and Haugh unit score (Table 2). 2. Including 20% RB or BR improved (p<0.05) ELR, EM and BWG, whereas RB or BR had no effect on EW (Table 2). 3.Including RB or BR improved FCR by 7.2 and 7.7%, respectively compared to the control diet (Table 2). 4. Yolk colour and Haugh unit score were decreased (p<0.05) due to dietary inclusion of RB and BR, with the effect of BR was more severe (data not shown). 5.Phytase and Avizyme improved (p<0.05) ELR, EW, EM, FCR and ECR, while decrease age at 40% ELR compared to control diet (Table 2). 6.Phytase (p<0.05) improved shell thickness compared to the control and Avizyme groups (Figure 1). 7.Avizyme and phytase additions to the LE- and the HE-diet improved ELR and EM (Table 2). 8. There were interactions (p<0.05) between level and sources of dietary energy and enzyme additions on laying rate, egg mass, FCR and ECR (Table 2), meaning that effect of enzymes depends on energy level and/or source. Conclusion: Phytase and Avizyme supplementation improved productive performance, while the best laying performance was of phytase supplemented LE-corn-soybean meal diet and Avizyme supplemented-LE-BR diet and without negative effects on egg quality traits. NS, (p> 0.05). Table (1) Composition of the diets fed during the laying phase (43-98 d of age) 1Vit+Min mixture provides per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 4,000,000 IU; Vit. E, 16.7g.; Vit. D3 500,000 IU; Vit. K, 0.67g.; Vit.B1, 0.67g.; Vit. B2, 2g.; Vit.B6, 0.67g.; Vit. B12, 0.004g.; Nicotinic acid, 16.7g.; Pantothenic acid, 6.67g.; Biotin, 0.07g.; Folic acid, 1.67g.; Choline chloride, 400g.; Zn, 23.3g.; Mn, 10g.; Fe, 25g.; Cu, 1.67g.; I, 0.25g.; Se, 0.033g.; Mg, 133.4g. * An antioxidant was added at the top of the diet at 125 g /ton. 1 Calculated analyses 2 Determined analyses. a-c means within a column within similar treatment with no common superscripts differ (p<0.05). NS, (p<0.05). Table (2) Effect of energy level, and inclusion of 20 rice bran or broken rice and/or Avizyme or phytase additions on BWG, age at 40% laying, laying performance and nutrient utilization of JQ hens during 43-98 d of age EPC 2006, Verona, Italy 10-14 September 2006 – Abs.10210
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