Effect of energy level, rice by products
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Effect of energy level, rice by products and enzyme additions on carcass yield, meat quality and plasma constituents of Japanese quail F. S. A. ISMAIL1, Y. A. ATTIA2*, F. A. M. AGGOOR1, E. M. A. QOTA3 and E. A.SHAKMAK1 1Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt.2Animal and Poultry Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University Damanhour, 22516, Egypt, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, 3Animal Production Research Institute, Giza, Dokki, Egypt. Introduction There are needs to seek the effects of using low energy (LE) and high energy (HE)-diet and diets containing rice by-products and enzymes on meat quality traits. Kassim and Suwanpradit (1996), Badawy (1997) and Attia et al. (1998) found that increasing dietary ME level did not affect dressing and internal organs (%). Also, Aggoor et al. (2000) found that increasing ME content of the control diet with fat addition produced carcasses of higher dressing (%). Attia et al. (2003) found that dressing (%) was not affected (p<0.05) by RB level, while liver and pancreas (%) were (p<0.05) enlarged when RB was fed at 15% or more to broiler chicks. Raya and El-Shinnawy (1989) found that BR up to 100% of yellow corn had no adverse effect on carcass yield and body organs of broilers. However, Isshak (1990) found that dressing (%) was not affected, meanwhile liver (%) was reduced, but heart and gizzard (%) were enlarged (p<0.05) of broilers due to dietary inclusion of 28% BR. El-Full et al. (2000), Kidd et al. (2001) and Attia et al. (2003) found that multienzymes and phytase had no effects on carcass yields and internal organs of broilers. Objectives: The effect of 2700 (LE) vs. 2900 (HE) kcal ME/kg diet and 0 vs.20% RB or BR without or with Avizyme or phytase on carcass yield, meat quality and plasma constituents of Japanese quail (JQ) was studied herein. Materials and methods A factorial design (2?3?3) was used from 14 to 42 days of age, in which there were two energy levels e.g. (high 2900 and low level 2700 kcal ME/kg diet), within each level, RB or BR was included at 0 or 20% (Diets could be shown in the Poster 10208). At 42 d of age, 6 JQ males were slaughtered after fasting overnight, processed and the weight of carcass, liver, intestinal, proventriculus, gizzard, heart, and testis were taken, and data were expressed as relative weight of live body weight. Meat chemical composition and physical characteristics were done using a sample of 50 % of breast meat + 50 % of thigh meat. The dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and crude ash (CA) were determined according to AOAC (1995) and expressed in dry matter basis. Meat tenderness, water holding capacity (WHC), pH and color were carried out as cited by Aggoor et al. (2000), respectively. Six blood samples were collected in heparinized tubes of each treatment at 42 days of age. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes and stored at -18oC until analysis. Plasma total protein, total lipids, total cholesterol, AST and ALT were determined as cited by Aggoor et al. (2000). Data were analysed using three way analyses of variance of the GLM of SAS (SAS Institute, 1990), while main differences were compared using Duncan’s New multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955). Results and Discussion: 1.Feeding HE increased (p<0.05) dressing (%), proventriculus (%) (Table 1), meat DM (%), and EE (%), meat color (Table 2), plasma total lipids and cholesterol (Figure 1), while decreased (p<0.05) meat CP (%) and thus decreased (p<0.05) water-holding capacity (WHC) of meat compared to the LE level (Table 2). 2.Plasma total lipids and cholesterol was increased (p<0.05) when HE diet was fed (Figure 1). 3.Feeding diet containing 20% BR increased (p<0.05) proventriculus and testis compared with corn-soybean meal diet without or with 20% RB (Table 1). 4.Feeding RB-diet decreased proventriculus (p<0.05) compared to the control group (Table 1). 5.Meat color was decreased (p<0.05) upon the use of RB or BR, with the effect of BR was more severe (Table 2). 6.Phytase and Avizyme decreased (p<0.05) intestinal (%) compared to control. While, phytase increased (p<0.05) proventriculus (%) (Table 1). 7.Plasma total lipids were increased (p<0.05) due to phytase, without adverse effect on plasma cholesterol (Figure 1). 8.An interaction (p<0.05) between energy level and inclusion of 20% RB and BR and/or enzyme additions was observed in carcass yield and body organs (Table 1) and chemical composition and physical characteristics of meat (Table 2), showing that the effect of enzyme depends on source and level of dietary energy. Conclusion: It could be concluded that energy level, inclusion of 20% RB or BR and enzyme additions had no negative effects on carcass yield and most of meat quality traits and plasma constituents of Japanese quail. Table (1) Effect of energy level, rice by products and/or enzyme additions and their interactions on dressing and body organs (%) a-c means within a column within similar treatment with no common superscripts differ significantly. NS, (p> 0.05) Table (2) Effect of energy level, rice by products and/or enzyme additions on plasma constituents of 42 d old Japanese quail a-b means within a column within similar treatment with no common superscripts differ significantly. NS, (p> 0.05). EPC 2006, Verona, Italy 10-14 September 2006 – Abs.10211
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