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on Aug 21, 2012 Says :
on Aug 21, 2012 Says :
very nice PPT on Forensic Odontology.
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Forensic Odontology 31.03.2011
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Forensic Odontology An Introduction to Forensic Dentistry By - Kirti Pande (UDMRI,bds 4th yr) Under the guidence of: Dr.Samit Jain
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Objectives Provides an overview of dental forensics. Reviews the following identification techniques: visual, dental prints, radiological/medical, DNA, and dental. Describes identification processes/procedures for: Mass disasters Criminal investigations Human remains identification
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Dental Forensics Forensic Medicine and Odontology deals with the professional handling , examination, interpretation and presentation of medical and dental evidences that come before legal authorities Branch of science that applies dental knowledge in civil and criminal investigations Internationally described as “Forensic Odontology” One of the fastest emerging sub disciplines within the broader subject of dental science. It encompasses ethical issues and events related to the claim of negligence and malpractice by dentists and paradental professionals.
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Who practices forensic odontology and what do they do? Forensic Odontologists : Must have dental degree. Should have specialized training. Forensic dentists help : Identify human remains Analyze bite marks Estimate age of victim and perpetrator Trace dental malpractice
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HISTORY 66 A.D.: Lollia Paulina’s body identified using teeth Revolutionary War Paul Revere,was the first forensic dentist in the United States because he identified fallen revolutionary soldiers. Mass deaths at Vienna Opera House Fire Dental identification evidence first admitted in U.S. court system in 1849.
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Organizations of Forensic Odontology Bureau of Legal Dentistry (BOLD) American Board of Forensic Odontology (ABFO) International Organization for Forensic Odonto-Stomatology (IOFOS)
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Forensic dentistry section
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DENTAL CHARTING Entire team must be consistent Charting standards should be provided to every member for reference Universal numbering system preferred Simple in nature Easily computerized
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Identification Methods Visual Fingerprints/footprints Radiological/Medical DNA Dental PHOTO
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Unique No two individuals have identical dentitions Dental care rendered is often unique Identification can sometimes be made from one tooth Durable Teeth most durable part of human body Remains after decomposition, fire, or trauma Dental Identification
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Teeth Basics Approximately 32 teeth in adult mouth Four types of teeth: Molars Premolars Canine Incisors Teeth differ in: Size Shape Root type Types of teeth. Left to right: Incisor, Canine, Premolar, molar.
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Teeth through the years CHILDHOOD ADULTHOOD Primary teeth sprout from milk buds and are temporary. Once they fall out, permanent teeth as seen on the other side appear. Permanent adult teeth come in when primary teeth fall out; they are permanent because they establish roots inside the gums. Third molar come in around the mid teenage years.
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Individual Characteristics Size of tooth Shape of tooth Shape of root Placement of tooth Quantity of teeth Combinations of dental work done: Crowns Extractions Bridge Fillings Root canals
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ANALYZING TEETH The Universal System Teeth are given a specific number. (Primary teeth are given specific capital letter) Any dental work done on surface is noted Sheets kept on dental file forever. When person is missing, files are transferred to the missing person’s office
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IDENTITIFICATION Individual identification Mass indentification Postmortem description is generated XRAYS & radiographs Positive identification is compared to ante-mortem data Negative identification, a biological profile is generated Same process is used as individual identification Organization is crucial Family is asked to come identify the body, and narrow down the pool of victims.
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Various Teeth Found
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Bite Marks IMPRESSIONS FROM TEETH FOUND ON SKIN OR ITEMS LEFT AT A SCENE. USUALLY OUTLINE TEETH PLACEMENT.
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Where are bite marks found? Impressions left on food, skin or other items left at a scene. Porous surfaces that absorb the impact enough to make an impression Impressions vary Depending on the pressure applied, the impression will show accordingly. The more pressure there is, the more detail to the bite.
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Analyzing bite marks Bite marks are photographed with a scale Bite marks on skin are taken over repeated intervals Casts of impression are taken Impression traced onto transparencies Casts of suspects teeth are taken Comparison between suspect cast and bite mark
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Various Bite Marks
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Lip marks Lip prints are normal lines and fissures in the form of wrinkles and grooves present in the zone of transition of human lip, between the inner labial mucosa and outer skin, examination of which is known as cheiloscopy. This is unique for individuals Serve as a USEFUL EVIDENCE IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY
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Lip print patterns demonstrating inter- individual variation Various lip print patterns
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“ Every contact leaves it’s trace” OTHER METHODS EMPLOYED INCLUDES : RUGOSCOPY : STUDY OF PALATAL RUGAE AMELOGLYPHICS : EXAMINATION OF TOOTH PRINTS RADIOGRAPHS PHOTOGRAPHS MOLECULAR METHODS
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Postmortem Identification Facial dissection Perioral incision & tissue removal Mandible sectioned & submylohyoid incisions Separate ramus and incise pterygoids Floor of mouth incision connecting all external incisions
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Dental Profiling When dental records are unavailable and other methods of identification are not possible, the forensic dentist can often produce a "picture" of the general features of the individual. This process is known as post-mortem dental profiling. A dental profile will typically provide information on the deceased's age, ancestry background, sex and socio-economic status. In some instances it is possible to provide additional information regarding occupation, dietary habits, habitual behaviours and occasionally on dental or systemic diseases.
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Techniques CRYOGENIC GRINDING DOUBLE SWAB STAIN COLLECTION DNA PROFILING
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ADVANCEMENT: Computer Odontology Automatic dental code matching Bites are run through the computer to find a match OdontoSearch Compare a data base of missing peoples, felons, government workers Automatic dental identification system A few minutes will produce a list of people who have the same dental code number 3D Bite mark analysis 3D scans of dental casts are used to generate overlays using various pressure and deviation. The overlays are compared with the photograph of the bite marks.
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AUTOMATIC DENTAL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
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SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Feature Extraction Atlas Registration Matching Retrieval
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BITE MARKS ANALYSIS: USING 3D SCAN SYSTEM The overlays are compared with the photograph of the bite marks.
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AUTOMATED DENTAL CODE MATCHING CAPM1 / WinID
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SUMMARY Forensic dentistry plays a major role in the identification of those individuals who cannot be identified visually or by other means. The unique nature of our dental anatomy and the placement of custom restorations ensure accuracy when the techniques are correctly employed. In this brief overview, the Paper presentation have shown, some of the traditional and upcoming techniques in this fascinating field.
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References Cottone JA, Bernstein ML, Forensic Odontology, 2010. Senn DR, Stimson PG, Forensic Dentistry, 2nd Edition., 2010. Stavrianos C, Kokkas A, Andreopoulos E, Eliades A, Applications of forensic dentistry: Part 1, Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010;4:179-186. FOR PICTURES www.dentalforensics.com www.forensicsciencesfoundation.org
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introduction to forensic
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