Gender and Development

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1 : Gender and Development: Concepts and Definitions Discussion leader: Felipe N. Escano, R.N.,M.D.
2 : contents 1. Introduction 3. Detailed Explanations Culture Gender Analysis Gender Discrimination Gender Division of Labour Gender Equality and Equity Gender Mainstreaming Gender Needs Gender Planning Gender Relations Gender Training Gender Violence Intra-household Resource Distribution National Machineries for Women Patriarchy Sex and Gender Social Justice WID/GAD Women's Empowerment Women's Human Rights
3 : contents GAD world bank GAD in the Philippines GAD in Nursing Profession
4 : introduction Selected concepts central to Gender and Development thinking are explained here. These are intended to help you explore some of the key ideas and issues in Gender and Development and their implications for policy and practice.
5 : Culture The distinctive patterns of ideas, beliefs, and norms which characterise the way of life and relations of a society or group within a society
6 : “We talk about poverty across societies, and no-one raises any problems. We talk about gender subordination across societies, and people cry cultural imperialism!” (White, 1993:9)
7 : Gender Analysis The systematic gathering and examination of information on gender differences and social relations in order to identify, understand and redress inequities based on gender
8 : ‘Gender analysis, once confined to the margins of development theory, has over the last ten years penetrated both the thinking and the operations of international development institutions’ (Miller and Razavi, 1998:4)
9 : Gender Discrimination The systematic, unfavourable treatment of individuals on the basis of their gender, which denies them rights, opportunities or resources
10 : “Not all women are poor, and not all poor people are women, but all women suffer from discrimination” (Kabeer, 1996:20) Gender discrimination: • women work 67% of the world’s working hours 2 out of 3 of the world’s illiterate people are women women’s earnings range from 50-85% of men’s earnings globally women make up just over 10% of representatives in national government (adapted from Oxfam, 1995:181, and ‘Facts and Figures’ section)
11 : Gender Division of Labour The socially determined ideas and practices which define what roles and activities are deemed appropriate for women and men
12 : Gender Equality and Equity Gender equality denotes women having the same opportunities in life as men, including the ability to participate in the public sphere Gender equity denotes the equivalence in life outcomes for women and men, recognising their different needs and interests, and requiring a redistribution of power and resources
13 : Gender Mainstreaming An organisational strategy to bring a gender perspective to all aspects of an institution’s policy and activities, through building gender capacity and accountability
14 : Beijing Platform for Action: ‘…governments and other actors should promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programmes’ (cited in DAC, 1998:28)
15 : Gender Needs Shared and prioritised needs identified by women that arise from their common experiences as a gender
16 : Gender Planning The technical and political processes and procedures necessary to implement gender-sensitive policy
17 : ‘Project planning and implementation from a gender-based perspective can have only one ultimate goal…contribute to changing the balance of the sexual division of power and resources so as to make it more equitable’ (Macdonald, 1994:45)
18 : Gender Relations Hierarchical relations of power between women and men that tend to disadvantage women
19 : Gender Training A facilitated process of developing awareness and capacity on gender issues, to bring about personal or organisational change for gender equality
20 : ‘Gender training…is a tool, a strategy, a space for reflection, a site of debate and possibly for struggle. Training is a transformative process’ (Macdonald, 1994:31)
21 : Gender Violence Any act or threat by men or male-dominated institutions, that inflicts physical, sexual, or psychological harm on a woman or girl because of their gender
22 : “Women should wear purdah [head-to-toe covering] to ensure that innocent men … are not unconsciously forced into becoming rapists’ Parliamentarian of the ruling Barisan National in Malaysi (cited in Heise et al1994:iii)
23 : Intra-household Resource Distribution The dynamics of how different resources that are generated within or which come into the household, are accessed and controlled by its members
24 : ‘The consensus appears to be shifting to the view that intrahousehold relations are indeed characterised by power’ (Kabeer, 1998:103)
25 : National Machineries for Women Agencies with a mandate for the advancement of women established within and by governments for integrating gender concerns in development policy and planning
26 : Patriarchy Systemic societal structures that institutionalise male physical, social and economic power over women
27 : ‘In attacking both patriarchy and capitalism we will have to find ways to change both society wide institutions and our most deeply ingrained habits. It will be a long, hard struggle’ (Hartmann 1976:169)
28 : Sex and Gender Sex refers to the biological characteristics that categorise someone as either female or male; whereas gender refers to the socially determined ideas and practices of what it is to be female or male
29 : Social Justice Fairness and equity as a right for all in the outcomes of development, through processes of social transformation
30 : WID/GAD The WID (or Women in Development) approach calls for greater attention to women in development policy and practice, and emphasises the need to integrate them into the development process In contrast, the GAD (or Gender and Development) approach focuses on the socially constructed basis of differences between men and women and emphasises the need to challenge existing gender roles and relations
31 : Women’s Empowerment A ‘bottom-up’ process of transforming gender power relations, through individuals or groups developing awareness of women’s subordination and building their capacity to challenge it
32 : Beijing Declaration: ‘Women’s empowerment and their full participation on the basis of equality in all sphere of society, including participation in the decision-making process and access to power, are fundamental for the achievement of equality, development and peace (paragraph13).’ (cited in DAC, 1998: 10)
33 : Women’s Human Rights The recognition that women’s rights are human rights and that women experience injustices solely because of their gender
34 : Percentage of countries that have ratified the Women’s Convention (CEDAW) worldwide: • 60 percent without reservations • 29 percent with reservations • 11 percent not ratified (IWTC, 1998:126) ‘Despite these meticulously worded international treaties, discrimination against women persists on every level in every corner of the world' (IWTC, 1998:20)
35 : Gender and world bank Bank assistance has helped contribute to the following: · In developing regions, gender parity has risen—from 91 girls for every 100 boys enrolled in primary school and 88 girls for every 100 boys enrolled in secondary school ten years ago—to 96 girls for every 100 boys enrolled in primary school and 95 girls for every 100 boys enrolled in secondary school today. · Female life expectancy has increased by 20 to 25 years in most places in the past 50 years, to reach 71 globally in 2007 (compared with 67 for men). · Maternal deaths fell from 546,000 in 1990 to 358,000 in 2008. As 99 percent (355,000) of these deaths still occur in developing countries, the Bank is redoubling its efforts on reproductive health.
36 : · The lives of thousands of adolescent girls and young women are improving through job skills and training funded by the Adolescent Girls Initiative, which includes Afghanistan, Haiti, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Jordan, Liberia, Nepal, Rwanda, and South Sudan. · Thanks to projects with the private sector, thousands of women in developing countries are gaining access to credit to fund their businesses, such as in Tanzania. · More and more women are getting land titles and certification, as it is the case in Ethiopia and Aceh. Studies show that land titling is key in women’s ability to increase the productivity of their land and have access to capital.
37 : GAD in education In India, the IDA-financed Elementary Education Project has helped the government enroll nearly 20 million out-of-school children into elementary school. As a result of the program, India is now very close to achieving gender parity in primary education. By 2009, 94 girls were enrolled for every 100 boys in primary school compared to 90 in the early 2000s. Moreover, the gap between girls and boys is narrowing and the primary completion rate is expected to reach gender parity by 2013. In Bangladesh, the Female Secondary School Assistance Program, launched in 1993 and financed by IDA, supported a government program to improve access to secondary education for girls by providing tuition stipends. Girl’s enrollment in secondary schools in Bangladesh jumped to 3.9 million in 2005, from 1.1 million in 1991, including an increasing number of girls from disadvantaged or remote areas. This has enabled Bangladesh to achieve one of its Millennium Development Goals ahead of time—gender parity in education. In Yemen, several IDA projects have contributed to impressive gains in gross enrolment ratios for all levels of education. Increase in enrolment in primary education to 87 percent in 2008-09 from 68 percent in 1998-99. Gains in girls’ enrolment were even higher with an increase to 78% in 2008-09 from 49% in 1998-99, reducing by half the gap with male enrolment. Starting in 2007, authorities committed to contract and train female teachers over a three-year period. In addition, conditional cash transfer schemes were introduced in two governorates in 2008 and 2009 to support girls’ attendance in school. More than 30,000 girls have received the transfers so far.
38 : GAD IN HEALTH In Ghana, health insurance coverage has been extended to people employed in the informal and rural sectors since the inception of the World Bank-financed National Health Insurance program. About 70 percent of the insured, including children and pregnant women, are exempt from paying premiums. As of 2009, at least 90 percent of pregnant women use antenatal care services, and births attended by skilled health staff rose from 40 percent in 1990 to 59 percent in 2008. In Senegal, the Nutrition Enhancement Project, supported by the World Bank, now reaches about 40 percent of the population. Pre-natal consultation coverage—important for both mothers-to-be and the babies they bear—climbed from 52 percent to 67 percent. The percent of mothers who breastfeed exclusively for the first six months has nearly doubled from 30 percent to 58 percent. Counseling women on the ill effects of sugar water, formula, and other substitutes has had an impact in Senegal. In Afghanistan, the Health Sector Emergency Reconstruction and Development Project helped millions of people in rural areas access primary health care for the first time. Health care for expectant mothers expanded, with the number of deliveries assisted in facility by trained health workers jumping from 6 percent to 23 percent and the number of pregnant women who received at least one prenatal care visit rose from 8,500 in 2003 to 188,670 in 2008. Around 20,000 community health workers—half of them women—have been trained and deployed throughout the country, increasing access to family planning and boosting childhood vaccinations. In Djibouti, the Health Sector Development Project supported the government’s long-term health sector development program in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals for the reduction of under-five child mortality and maternal mortality rates. Working with the World Bank, Djibouti has brought down the child mortality rate to 67 deaths per 1000 live births in 2006 from 124 in 2002, while HIV/AIDS prevalence among young pregnant women (15-to-24 years old) decreased to 2 percent in 2009 compared to 2.9 percent in 2002. In addition, medically-assisted delivery reached 87.3 percent in 2006 compared to 44 percent in 2002.
39 : INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT In Jordan, the New Work Opportunities for Women pilot project, the most recent addition to the World Bank’s Adolescent Girls Initiative, is helping young female community college graduates find work. As of March 2011, 207 young women were employed under the voucher component and 373 young female graduates completed the training sessions and started looking for jobs. In Turkey, a study jointly conducted by the World Bank, explains the key factors underlying low female employment, the benefits of getting more women to work, and the policy priorities to generate more and better jobs for women. Since its release in 2009, it has contributed to mainstreaming female employment into the public debate as well as employment policies and programs. In February 2011, the government of Turkey extended incentives to employers for hiring women, and introduced incentives for self-employed women and part-time workers. In Mexico, a World Bank funded initiative, the Gender Equity Model, was run by the National Institute for Women to promote equal opportunities for men and women and to help surmount cultural barriers in business practices. By December 2010, some 300 Mexican organizations had been certified as gender equitable and an average of 63 firms per annum continue to adopt the program. Findings from Mexico show that participating firms have eliminated pregnancy discrimination from recruitment practices, communication has improved, and 90% of participating organizations reported that workers’ performance and productivity have increased.
40 : PRIVATE SECTOR In South Sudan, where the civil war destroyed the private sector, the government and the World Bank’s Gender Action Plan launched the Business Plan Competition to support the growth and expansion of small and medium-sized enterprises. Twenty-five female entrepreneurs (out of 45 awarded proposals) were awarded US$20,000 each through a commercial bank to use as collateral. The project also channeled US$500,000 to local microfinance service providers to extend loans to women, provided technical assistance to women clients, and collected sex-disaggregated information for monitoring and evaluation. In Tanzania the Gender Action Plan supported an IFC women-targeted project that increased women’s access to finance around the country. Initially supported by an IFC’s credit line of $5 million, Exim Bank’s program has since enabled 214 women to access over $8 million in credit to expand their small or medium sized businesses. Exim’s partnership with the microleasing institution SELFINA has further opened up opportunities for financing to female borrowers who have good repayment records.
41 : Rural Development and Infrastructure In Haiti, the Fostering Economic Empowerment for Women Agricultural Producers Project, funded by the Gender Action Plan (GAP), aims to focus policy on equipping women with the right skills—both technical and financial—to increase crop yields, access markets and increase their incomes. Key results include a consultation report on women producers and their needs, an assessment of the capacity building needs of the government, and the creation of preliminary project indicators to monitor gender inclusion in the agricultural sector. In India, the Andhra Pradesh District Poverty Initiatives Project and the Andhra Pradesh Rural Poverty Reduction Project were designed to enable the rural poor to improve their livelihoods and quality of life, and to reduce their vulnerability to shocks. To this end, the projects facilitated small group organization and self management within rural communities, with a particular focus on women. Nearly 8 million poor women in rural areas have been organized into 629,870 self-help groups and 28,282 village organizations. As a result, incomes increased for close to 90 percent of poor rural households, including around 8 million women. In Lao PDR, the House Wiring Assistance Program was designed to enable poor rural households, which are disproportionately female-headed, to access electricity. The project offers these households a concessionary credit of US$80 million to cover the high cost of connecting to the electricity grid. The implementation of the pilot project, Power to the Poor, was launched in September 2008. Connection rates in the 20 pilot villages increased from 78 percent to 95 percent overall, and from 63 percent to 90 percent for female-headed households. In Vietnam, a World Bank project provided financing support to ethnic minority women to undertake road maintenance in rural areas, thereby increasing women’s employment in poor, remote areas, and developing a cost-effective way to maintain rural roads that are often poorly cared for. A total of 13,470 km has been maintained and 1,533 ethnic minority women from four communes were trained as rural transportation managers. As a result, women have achieved greater voice in community decision-making and a more visible role in managing affairs at the household level, arising from increased economic power and social status.
42 : Aims & Scope Since 1993, Gender & Development has aimed to promote, inspire, and support development policy and practice, which furthers the goal of equality between women and men.
43 :
44 : Beyond Gender Parity in Philippine Education: Achieving Gender Equality in and Through Education in the Philippines
45 : Gender and Development Approach The second approach is called Gender and Development (GAD), which primarily looks at gender more as a power issue, and therefore a political problem—meaning, the basic unequal, imbalanced power relations that exist between man and woman as a result of their socialization. As a solution, it critically examines and decisively transforms gen-dered relations in all social structures, systems and institutions, major among which is the educational system. The root of the problem is not the sheer exclusion of women in the development process and the lack of productive assets (education as an asset, a tool for development). Thus, it is not enough that more girls and women enter school, and be pro- vided with supports and services that will keep them there GAD defines gender as social constructs of what it is be man or woman; education as a lifelong learning process beyond schooling; development as starting from the elimi-nation of all forms of oppression and injustice and moving towards a more enlight-ened, self-directed, self-reliant state. GAD sees education as essentially a political tool in the transformation of the lives of individual women, done primarily through
46 : GAD influence on policy and practice can be seen at two levels. First, GAD thinkers have developed critiques of policy making that are concerned with the gendered processes of decision making in schools. To address these issues, gender mainstreaming and gender budgeting are but two of the major tools developed to make gender more central to the concerns of policy makers, rather than seeing it as a quick solution to a hodgepodge of seemingly disparate social problems. Through gender mainstreaming, gender equality was made a fundamental value that must find its expression and realization in institutional policies and practices, with the key principle of having more women as decision makers in these institutions and organizations. Second, gender sensitivity trainings for teachers and non-teaching staff of educa-tional institutions as integral to gender mainstreaming efforts has emerged as a potent practice in the development of gender-fair curriculum, teaching and learning materials, and more gender-responsive and non-sexist teachers.
47 : Men in nursing Certainly the bias and prejudices toward men in nursing that existed at that time no longer exist. Right? Wrong, according to Gene Tranbarger, Ed.D., R.N., CNAA, associate professor of nursing at East Carolina University in Greenville, N.C. “Open discrimination against men is fast disappearing from schools of nursing but remains imbedded in the school fabric,” he observes. “The faculty still relies on feminine pronouns when discussing nurses. Male nurses who wish to work in obstetrics/gynecology still face obstacles and often have to resort to legal remedies.” What about male nurses who happen to be racial/ethnic minorities? Do they face similar issues as non-minority male nurses, or do they experience a whole other array of issues? Though there is no single united viewpoint or experience that speaks for all minority men in nursing, theirs is a voice that is growing in strength and numbers. It is a voice that loudly proclaims the importance of the nursing profession reflecting the diversity of its patient population—including gender.


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