Good Laboratory Practice


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  Notes
 
 
1 : What is GLP Good Laboratory Practice is an essential part of Good Manufacturing Practice detailed in Schedule M to the Drugs & Cosmetic Rule. It involves a number of good practices in the Quality Control laboratory which are to be undertaken to carry out an analysis with a defined degree of Accuracy & Precision.
2 : Importance of G L P Since raw materials, packaging materials, intermediates and finished products are ultimately released based on the analytical results generated in the Q.C. Laboratory, Accuracy, Precision and Reliability of these results are of paramount importance.
3 : GMP vs. GLP Samples Laboratory Processes Results of Analysis Good Laboratory Practices Raw Materials Packaging Materials Manufacturing Processes Finished Product of Standard Quality Good Manufacturing Practices
4 : Components of GLP Quality of Analytical Data Quality Control of Analytical Processes Quality Assurance of Analytical Processes
5 : Factors influencing implementation & maintenance of GLP in Q.C. laboratory Laboratory infrastructure. Reference Standards & reference microbial cultures. Quality of analytical Reagents & Chemicals. Quality of Volumetric glass wares. Preparation of Standard solutions and reagent solutions. Calibration of Equipments / instruments & volumetric glass wares. Validation of Analytical methods specially non-pharmacopoeial methods. Proper documentation of analytical methods, specifications & protocol of tests. Training of analysts: formal & informal Good Safety practices.
6 : Laboratory Infrastructure General Chemical Laboratory The specific requirements are: Well ventilated lighted and preferably air conditioned to maintain a temperature of 27 ± 10C. Fitted with proper laboratory furnitures and fixtures and a change room. Instrument Room: The specific requirements are: Temperature : 25 ± 10C Relative humidity : 45 ± 5%. Constant supply voltage of 230 volts ± 1% and a frequency of 50 Hz ± 3%. No vibrational disturbances. Separate room for housing semi-micro & microbalances.
7 : Laboratory Infrastructure Microbial Laboratory: Air conditioned, preferably with AHU with suitable filter (5 micron or less). Fitted with proper laboratory furnitures & fixtures and a change room. For units having both sterile & non – sterile products there should be two aseptic zones having class 1000 area with LAF and entry through graded air zones, one for inoculation and cultures transfer and another for sterility testing. For units having only non-sterile products, one aseptic zone must be there.
8 : Laboratory Infrastructure Hot Zone : For housing Hot Air Oven, Muffle Furnace, Fume Cupboard, Autoclaves etc. one Hot Zone is required. This zone should have proper ventilation system. Package Material Testing Section : The specific requirements are: Adequate space, Required equipments and instrument. Furnitures & Fixtures.
9 : Laboratory Infrastructure Retained Sample Area : This is required for storage & preservation of retained samples of both finished products and active raw materials The specific requirements are: Proper temperature control (wherever required) Proper demarcation for finished products and active raw materials. Cleaning Area: The specific requirements are: Suitable size Provided with facilities like running hot and cold water, purified water, different cleaning agents for glass apparatus.
10 : Laboratory Infrastructure Storage Area for Lab Chemicals, Glass Apparatus & Miscellaneous Items: There should be an adequate area with proper demarcation and proper temperature control wherever required for storage of laboratory chemicals, solvent, glass apparatus & miscellaneous items. In addition to these, there should be adequate arrangements for all types of services like vacuum, compressed air, nitrogen, potable water, purified water, ultra-pure water etc. in different sections of Q.C. Lab.
11 : Reference Standard Primary reference Standards for active & inactive bulk drugs of IP, BPCRS, EPCRS USP grade Reference standards for impurities wherever applicable and available Procurement from respective authorities like Central Drugs Laboratory, Kolkata; United States Pharmacopoeia Convention (USPC) etc. Proper Preservation (i.e. at controlled temperature and humidity etc.)
12 : Reference Standard Development of suitable working reference Standard from available active raw materials with the help of these primary standards. Identification and Storage of working standards with expiry date, retest date and other appropriate information. Documentation of all information regarding these primary standards and working standards.
13 : Reference Microbial Cultures Reference microbial cultures Procurement from Central Drugs Laboratory, Kolkata; Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, and National Collection of Type Culture (N.C.T.C.) U.K. and American Type Culture Collection (A.T.C.C.) U.S.A. wherever required. Proper Maintenance in the microbial lab as per instruction from the suppliers or as per respective pharmacopoeia. Proper documentation.
14 : Analytical Reagents & Chemicals All analytical Reagents and Chemicals should be of analytical reagents grades or guaranteed reagents grades of suitable manufacturer. These should comply with the specification for reagents given in different pharmacopoeia. The specification of the reagents required must be mentioned clearly in the test method.
15 : Volumetric Glassware Two grades of volumetric glassware are used in the laboratory Class A: with test certificate, as per specification laid down by B.I.S. Class B as B.I.S. Class A are to be used for Work of the highest accuracy like standardization of volumetric solutions & Class B for routine work. Cleanliness of glassware should be ensured before use and periodic validation in this respect are to be done.
16 : Preparation of Standard solutions and reagent All standard solutions (reference standards and volumetric Standards) and reagents solution must have proper labels indicating name, strength, date of preparation, date of expiry and storage conditions. Proper documentation having details of preparation of these solution are to be maintained chronologically.
17 : Validation of Analytical Procedure All non Pharmacopoeial analytical methods having tests for identity, impurity / impurities & purity are to be validated properly before use in respect of – 1. Accuracy 5. Limit of Detection 2. Precision 6. Limit of Quantitation 3. Specificity 7. Robustness and 4. Linearity and Range 8. Ruggedness (as applicable for each individual method). For detailed methods of validation respective ICH guidelines may be consulted.
18 : Calibration of Equipments and instruments Calibration is the comparison of the performance of a measuring equipment / instrument with that of standard equipment / instrument. In a Quality Control lab, all equipments and instruments which are directly or indirectly used for measurement are to be calibrated periodically.
19 : Types of Calibration Calibration by external agency: Some measuring equipments / instruments like pressure gauge, thermo dials, glass thermometers, wet and dry bulb hygrometers, balances etc. can be calibrated with the help of an NABL accredited external agency using primary or secondary standards. Calibration in the laboratory : Some measuring instruments like UV VIS Spectrophotometer, Polarimeter etc can be calibrated internally using methods described in pharmacopoeia.
20 : Types of Calibration 3. Calibration in the laboratory with the help of external agency Certain instruments like HPLC, gas chromatograph, particle counters etc. are to be calibrated with the help of procedures described in the operating manual and/ or service manual of these instruments. Calibration by Validation of the respective procedure: Some equipments/ instrument may be calibrated indirectly by validation of the respective procedure. For example: Monitoring of the autoclaving process in an autoclave with the help of Bacillus stearothermophyllus spore ship. Determining efficiency of removal of pyrogenic material in glass apparatus, used for LAL test, by hot air oven, with the help of bacterial endotoxin (Log reduction Tests) etc
21 : Training All laboratory personnel (managers, supervisory staffs, analysts, technicians, helpers and others) should have regular training and updation. Training can be of two types – Formal training : This may cover different topics like analytical chemistry, statistical techniques, microbial techniques, instrumental techniques, electronic data processing, documentation etc. Informal training : Informal or on the job training involves laboratory skills & manipulations. Records of training must be kept.
22 : Documentation & Records Usual Document and records with which Q C Laboratory has to deal with are – Specification Test Procedure Standard Operating Procedures Certificate of Analysis with relevant Test Protocols Sample Register Register for Reference Standards & Reference Cultures Calibration Records Validation Records Training Records Records for Retained samples (Both finished products & active raw materials) Records pertaining to the preparation of solutions of reference standards, volumetric solutions and other reagents. Log book for instruments & equipments. All documents are to be reviewed periodically and updated whenever required. Records should be maintained in such a manner that these are always traceable. If required help of electronic data processing system may be taken.
23 : Safety In the Quality Control Laboratory, one has to handle a no of hazardous, poisonous and inflammable chemicals and also pathogenic organisms. Hence the adoption of proper safety measure and use of safety devices are of paramount importance. The use of mask, gloves, face shields, aprons, gumboots etc. should be made compulsory in the handling of corrosive chemicals. There should be adequate fire fighting arrangements in the laboratory and personnel should be given proper training for fire fighting.   Training for other safety measures should be imparted regularly and records of these training should be maintained. Microbial residues should be regularly destroyed by autoclaving and records maintained.
24 : In conclusion one must realize that in the pharmaceutical industry there is no margin for error and one must follow good practices in the laboratory to generate accurate, precise and reliable data. CONCLUSION
25 : Thank You

 

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