History of Nursing


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1 : History of Nursing Bhaumika Sharma Master of Nursing 1st Year CSMS, Nepal
2 : 17th Century 1633 - The founding of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Servants of the Sick Poor by Sts. Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marillac. The community would not remain in a convent, but would nurse the poor in their homes, "having no monastery but the homes of the sick, their cell a hired room, their chapel the parish church, their enclosure the streets of the city or wards of the hospital."
3 : 1645 - Jeanne Mance establishes North America's first hospital, l'Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal. 1654 and 1656 - Sisters of Charity care for the wounded on the battlefields at Sedan and Arras in France. 1660 - Over 40 houses of the Sisters of Charity exist in France and several in other countries; the sick poor are helped in their own dwellings in 26 parishes in Paris.
4 : 18th century 1755 - Rabia Choraya, head nurse or matron in the Moroccan Army. She traveled with Braddock’s army during the French & Indian War. She was the highest-paid and most respected woman in the army. 1783 - James Derham, a slave from New Orleans, buys his freedom with money earned working as a nurse.
5 : ANCIENT BABYLONIANS No organized nursing care. ANCIENT EGYPTIANS Women assisted ‘priest- physician’ as priestess/ midwives/ wet-nurses HEBREW Basic nursing practices were existed.
6 : ANCIENT CHINA Nursing was impossible Confucius – Patriarchal role Women inferior to men ‘ Yang’ & ‘Yin’ – Active (male) & passive (female) force ANCIENT INDIAN (First civilizations were highly developed ) 1500 BC Ayurveda Explains hygiene, disease prevention, major/minor surgery, children’s disease, inoculation, materia medica, disease of CNS & GUS 1400 BC- Sushruta ‘ Father of Surgery’ in India. Charaka wrote ‘Internal medicine’ King Ashoka (272 – 236 BC) Public hospitals with male nurses and some older women, hospitals for animals. Universities (monasteries) of Taxila & Nalanda (Bihar)
7 : Nurses should have 3 qualities – high standards, skills and trustworthiness 1 AD Superstition & magic replaced by more up-to-date practice. But medicine remained in the hands of priest physician, who refused to touch blood and pathological tissue 1000 AD Brahmin influences gained strength and re-established itself. Buddhism declined. Brahmins were priest physicians Rigid Hindu caste system. No dissection. Superstition and magic replaced practice of medicine
8 : Hippocrates in the 5th century NURSES à function of untrained slaves ANCIENT ROMANS Men & women of good character did nursing Two classes: Patricians and Plebicians Nursing in Early Christian Era Women began nursing as an expression of Christianity (acts of mercy) Women were recognized (first recording in history) as important members of community Phoebe considered the first Deaconess and visiting nurse Fabiola started the first public hospital in Rome
9 : Early Middle Ages (AD 476-1000) “Dark Ages” Focus was on care and comfort (foundation of nursing) Nursing care was controlled by the Catholic Church Learning stopped and Christianity retreated behind the walls of monasteries due to the wars occurring in the land (The Roman Empire collapsed) and science declined
10 : High Middle Ages (1000-1475) Monasteries became the place for education of medicine and nursing. But Too strict so people’s interest was diminished in work and thus decline of monasteries between 9th and 10th century. 12th – 16th century – Ruled by religious order Nursing done by dedicated women, who took vows, but could not leave or get married. Also nursing brothers. Age – Between 16 – 24 yrs Nursing became acceptable for women and encouraged by Catholic Church
11 : Renaissance (1400-1600) Interest increased in science and discovery; Medicine increased Nursing declined The Reformation Led by Martin Luther there was the birth of protestantism; end of dominance of the Catholic Church where women remained subordinate, women did not work outside the home “ Wayward” women of low status became “nurses” instead of going to jail
12 : Nursing in Ancient Time Ancient history shows records of nursing. The knowledge about the care of the sick in acncient times has been discovered through songs and findings of archaeologists. People were interested in the mysteries of life, birth, disease and death. Men attributed spiritual value to all natural objects, believing that objects in nature such as trees or rivers had spirit or soul Disease was believed to be caused by evil spirits within the body. The body had to undergo unpleasant experiences to get rid of these evil spirits. Men thought disease was caused by their failure to satisfy the Gods, or was punishment for their sins.
13 : Nursing in Ancient Time(contd) People were ignorant of the laws of nature. Peaple were beaten to ge rid of evil spirits; sudden fright, loud noises and magic ceremonies were also use dto get rid of evil spirit. Holes on the body were made for the evil spirits to escape. Sacrifices were offered as a treatment. Massage, fomentation, triphining, bone setting, amputations, hot and cold baths, abdominal sections and heat control, hemorrhage are some of the skills gained from primitive men.
14 : Nursing in Ancient Time(contd) Nursing in India The earliest indian medicine was Ayur Veda Medicine found in Veda 5000 BC About 1400BC Charaka, the father of medicine, wrote a book on internal medicine. From these books we learn the hospitals were large and well equipped. Surgery had advanced to a high level. Doctors and attendants or nurses had to be pople of high moral character. King Ashoka on 226 – 250, built monasteries and houses for travellers; hospitals for men and animals were found. Hygienic practice was adapted; cleanliness of body was a religious duty.
15 : Nursing in Ancient Time(contd) Nursing in India First importance was given to prevention of diseases. Doctors and nurses were epected to be skillful and trustworthy. They had to wear clean clothes and had to keep their nails short. Nurses were usually mena or old women. Nursing in China China was quite advanced in medicine. Before 2000BC, medical professionals were allowed to practice dissection. They knew about circulation of blood. They had good description of internal organs.
16 : Nursing in Ancient Time(contd) Nursing in China Sen-Lung was known as the father of medicine. The doctors used systematic method of diagnosis. Their slogen was Look. Listen, Ask and Feel. By 100BC, they used vaccination. They recognized syphilis, gonorrhoea, used liver diets for anaemia, seaweed or iodine for thyroid conditions and chaulmoogra oil for leprosy by 1300AD Bathing and wearing clean clothes were advised and practised. Importance was given to hygiene. But nursing was not practised as they believed that disease was due to evil spirits in the patient and they might enter any one who touched the sick person. Medical progress was therefore hindered by this belief in common people.
17 : Nursing in Ancient Time(contd) Nursing in Egypt They had underground drains and midwives for deliveries. Nursing in Ancient Time(contd) Nursing in Greek and Roman Medicine Old women and men of good character did nursing in those days. Nursing in Modern Times The modern form of nursing was started by Florence Nightingale.
18 : 18th, early 19th centuries The sick and poor were in great numbers ”change” was needed, the stage was set for those with “social” vision 19th century Pastor Theodur Fliedner opened the Kaiserwerth Deaconess Institute—the first REAL nursing school Its most famous student: Florence Nightengale (1820-1910)

 

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