Life cycle approach to child and adolescent health


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normal growth and development of adolescence
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1 : Life cycle approach to child and adolescent health Eva Kudlova Charles University of Prague
2 : Overview Health is indivisible, requiring holistic approaches throughout the individual's life. Healthy outcome at one point in the life-cycle, provides a positive determinant for health elsewhere in the cycle. The presentation describes main environmental and socio-cultural challenges for each of the stages of child and adolescent life. Both, prevention of ill health and care for illnesses are important at all times but the balance between them shifts over time during the childhood and adolescence. Main actions necessary to meet the child and adolescent needs are described as well.
3 : © WHO
4 : Life course approach Healthy outcome at one point in the life-cycle, provides a positive determinant for health elsewhere in the cycle. What happens in pregnancy and the very early stages of childhood will have a profound impact on child and adolescent development. Growth and development of young children enhances the possibilities for development during the school age period and in adolescence. This will be carried through into adulthood and old age. Health and development of the 0-19 age group links intimately, at both ends of the range, with reproductive health. Health during childhood is in part determined by the health of the mother, in turn affected by factors such as the nutrition of adolescent girls and the avoidance of early pregnancy. These factors, in turn, are influenced by healthy growth and development in childhood. An investment early on will result in a lifetime of economic, social and personal benefits. Both, prevention of ill health and care for illnesses are important at all times but the balance between them shifts over time during the childhood and adolescence in relation to in risks encountered during the particular life-stage.
5 : Some health problems are phase-specific; others continue from birth to adulthood unwanted/mistimed pregnancies asphyxia birth trauma preterm birth, low birth weight sex selective abortions, infanticide neonatal tetanus, sepsis, MTCT of HIV INFECTIOUS DISEASES: pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, meningitis, HIV asthma helminthiasis emotional disorders, depression, suicide substance use (tobacco, alcohol and other harmful drugs) eating disorders unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions INJURIES: burns, falls, poisoning, drowning ACCIDENTS: household road traffic INTER- PERSONAL VIOLENCE Malaria & other endemic tropical diseases Tuberculosis Malnutrition & micronutrient deficiencies Malformations & disabilities INFECTIOUS DISEASES: sexually transmitted infections, incl.HIV © WHO
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7 : Global initiatives addressing child and adolescent health & development
8 : External factors influencing outcomes of the mother and child health cycle
9 : Physical environment Our health is determined to a very considerable extent by the physical environment in which we live - the air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat and the built environment all exact their toll. Young children are particularly susceptible to environmental threats: rapid development of immune, respiratory and nervous systems, development of metabolic functions. Any irritants encountered during the early stages of growth may permanently impair the development of vital organs. Children breathe more air, drink more water and eat more food than adults do per unit body weight, and this higher rate of intake results in greater exposure to pathogens and pollutants . Small children learn by exploring their world (put their hands and objects in their mouths, crawl and play on the ground) and are at risk from pathogens and pollutants from these surfaces. Close parental care and supervision is crucial to the safe and healthy development of young children.
10 : Social factors The social circumstances in which children and adolescents grow to maturity are of paramount importance. Peer pressure, family values, mass communication, the school environment, and social and gender norms all exert a considerable influence on lifestyle. Over the past decades, many countries in the European region have experienced rapid socio-political change, economic hardship, increased insecurity, conflict and even war. The health-related behaviour of adolescents is a function of all these pressures. Differences in the health experience of boys and girls are apparent in all countries due to: lower socioeconomic status of women in some settings, differences in biology, or to social behaviours and gender norms.
11 : Nutrition A balanced diet that provides optimum nutrition, together with a clean water supply, are crucial to every stage of development from pre-conception through to later life. Poor nutrition is associated with a reduced resistance to disease, impaired physical and psychological development, and infant morbidity and mortality. An inadequate diet can lead to deficiency disorders and/or contribute to civilization diseases. In recognition of the food's essential role in promoting and protecting health the European states endorsed the First Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy.
12 : Poverty Poverty is a major determinant of health. Inequities related to economic situation affect both physical and mental health. Poor children grow up in less healthy environments and are more likely to suffer the effects of pollution. Overcrowded housing is associated with a lack of safe areas for play. Accidents and crime are more prevalent; a poor diet and lack of physical activity are more likely. Poverty places maternal and newborn health at risk and has a deleterious impact on mental health. Relative poverty within countries may be even more important than absolute poverty. Relative poverty is growing at a more rapid rate in Europe and central Asia than anywhere in the world. In some European countries as many as 26% of children live in relative poverty.
13 : Pregnancy A healthy start to life is essential. A woman’s health directly influences the health and development of her child. Access to timely and responsive health services, including skilled birth attendants at the time of delivery, is essential. Maternal mortality varies enormously across the European region, ranging from 6 per 100,000 live births in Switzerland to 41 per 100,000 in some eastern countries.
14 : Main risks of pregnancy
15 : Main risks of pregnancy: Unsafe abortions The starting point in the life-course of health and development is : every baby should be a wanted baby. Unwanted pregnancies may lead to: unsafe abortions, child neglect, malnutrition, disease, and social problems. This implies effective contraceptive advice and availability as young people approach puberty and during their reproductive years.
16 : Main risks of pregnancy: Malnutrition and anaemia Inadequate nutrition in the very early stages of development can have an impact throughout an individual's life. In many European countries, micronutrient deficiency diseases co-exist with disorders of energy excess that result from a lack of fruit and vegetable intake. Malnutrition and anaemia, in pregnant women in low-income countries are a significant threat, as they can severely impact a foetus’ growth and development and result in long-term consequences. Eliminating malnutrition among pregnant women would reduce disabilities among their infants by almost one third.
17 : Main risks of pregnancy: Congenital abnormalities Congenital abnormalities are the second leading cause of death in high-income countries. In the US, these anomalies, along with sudden infant death syndrome and premature birth, account for > 50 per cent of all infant mortality. About 3-10% of these cases have been attributed to exogenous and environmental agents. Exposure during the early months of pregnancy can lead to an increased likelihood of mental retardation and development disabilities. The scope for reducing unnecessary disability and ill health is also considerable, through the application of interventions that are already known to be effective such as: vaccination against rubella (causes birth defects in 90% of children if contracted early in pregnancy), avoiding alcohol and stopping smoking.
18 : Main risks of pregnancy: Infections Mothers can be the vectors for transmitting communicable diseases to their babies. Although the absolute numbers remain relatively small, mother-to-child transmission of HIV has increased dramatically in Eastern Europe. In the Ukraine, for example, infection rates in pregnant women rose from 0.005 per 10 000 in 1996 to 17 per 10.000 only four years later. For the child, infection is the major killer during pregnancy and after birth, as well as low birth weight due to intrauterine growth retardation and/or pre-term birth.
19 : Neonatal period The first 28 days of life are critical. During this time the child is at highest risk for death. Of the approx. 10 million children under 5 years of age, who die each year, about one-third die in the neonatal period. Ninety-eight percent of all neonatal deaths occur in developing countries. Perinatal conditions, many of which are significantly influenced by environmental conditions, account for 20 per cent of the under-five mortality rate worldwide.
20 : © WHO
21 : Main risks of neonatal period
22 : Improving neonatal health Improving newborn survival will dramatically reduce infant mortality worldwide.  Neonatal health is largely a product of: socio-economic circumstances, access to appropriate services at the time of delivery as well as during the antenatal period, and parental education. Success in reducing neonatal mortality requires many components: caring families, availability of adequate healthcare, ability to recognize when a sick child needs professional care, good nutrition, and support from communities. 
23 : Early childhood Each year more than 10 million children in low-and middle-income countries die before they reach their fifth birthday. Seven in ten of these deaths are due to just five preventable and treatable conditions: pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, and malnutrition, and often to a combination of these conditions. Over 40% of the global burden of disease is attributed to environmental risks that affect children under five, although this age group only accounts for 10% of the world's population. Many biological environmental factors associated with this high toll, among them the lack of clean water and sanitation, as well as environmental-related diseases such as malaria and dengue fever.
24 : © WHO
25 : Main risks of early childhood
26 : Main risks of early childhood: Poor nutrition and growth Inappropriate nutrition is a major cause of poor health outcomes. Globally 27% of children under 5 years are underweight and there are wide variations also between the European countries. Appropriate feeding practices: stimulate psycho-social development, lead to improved nutrition and physical growth, lead to reduced susceptibility to common childhood infections and better resistance to cope with them. Much has already been done to promote breastfeeding. Increasing breastfeeding prevalence rates are reported from a number of countries. Continuing great concern led WHO to develop a global strategy for infant and young child feeding (IYCF).
27 : Main risks of early childhood: Poor development It is essential to provide a stimulating environment for psychosocial development. The development of intelligence, personality and social behaviour occurs most rapidly in humans during their first three to four years. Parents are the children’s earliest teachers. Strengthening the ability of the mother and all family members to care for and stimulate their children and encourage them to learn can set the stage for adult success.
28 : Main risks of early childhood: Frequent illnesses Many of the childhood communicable illnesses can be avoided through the efficient organization and management of immunization programmes. World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF addressed the care for illnesses in young children by developing a strategy “Integrated Management of Childhood Illness” (IMCI). IMCI is an integrated approach to child health that focuses on the well-being of the whole child. It aims to reduce death, illness and disability, and to promote improved growth and development among children under 5 years of age.
29 :
30 : Main risks of early childhood: Frequent illnesses – prevention and care Both, prevention and care for illnesses are very important for young children, and both focus primarily on the mother and other caretakers. Prevention in early childhood includes important issues about: breastfeeding and the appropriate introduction of complementary foods, hygiene practices, immunization, and caring behaviours that contribute to the healthy development of the young child.
31 : Main risks of early childhood: Abuse and neglect Child abuse and neglect manifest themselves during the first years of life in every country. Sixty per cent of children in Europe and Central Asia say they face violent or aggressive behaviour at home. The health consequences can be: physical, sexual and reproductive, psychological and behavioural, long-term, chronic disease.
32 : Main risks of early childhood: Injury Accidents and unintentional injuries become more prevalent as the child increasingly starts to explore his or her environment, often without the necessary coordination or awareness of hazards. Drowning, falls, fires, accidental poisoning and traffic accidents account for some of the disability and deaths in this age group.
33 : Early school age Globally, most deaths among school children are due to diseases that can be prevented, but that can also be treated easily. An appropriate and timely health care is essential. For some of the childhood diseases, vaccines protect a child, other diseases, such as diarrhoea and hepatitis A can be prevented by good hygiene and sanitary practices. Childhood cancers are a major concern in developed countries. In the US, cancer is the second biggest killer of children after accidents, with the median age of child victims of cancer being six years old. Acute leukaemia is the most common type of cancer found in children, and its incidence appears to be rising in some developed countries. Among the environmental factors that may play a role are tobacco smoke, radon, asbestos, ultraviolet light radiation, hazardous waste and some pesticides.
34 : Main risks of early school age
35 : Main risks of early school age: Poor nutrition, growth and development Poor nutrition remains globally a major contributor to childhood diseases and deaths. In countries with plentiful food provision, the cheapest form of food energy comes regrettably from fats, oils and sugar. Consumption of these energy-dense foods, together with lack of physical activity, results in increasing prevalence of obesity among children.
36 : Main risks of early school age: Injury New health challenges emerge as children become increasingly exposed to the wider physical and social environment. Injuries, usually road traffic injuries, falls and drowning, are now the number-one killer of children aged five to 14 years in developed countries. Additional factors such as exposed cooking set-ups, dangerous tools and equipment, open sewers, construction or electrical sites and hazardous chemicals pose threats in developing countries.
37 : Main risks of early school age: Helminth infections Helminth diseases, which are caused by intestinal worms found in soils and vegetables, are one of the common health problems among school age children in developing countries. These children commonly carry large loads of helminths, which can cause anaemia and other debilitating conditions. These illnesses can result in impaired learning, poor school performance and more absences from school.
38 : Social factors in early school age Parental lifestyle increases its impact as the child develops. Attitudes to health-related behaviours such as smoking and physical activity are formed, and eating patterns become established. As social interaction beyond the family develops: School environment, peer pressure and the mass media become increasingly influential in establishing the child’s values, attitudes and behaviour patterns. School is an important place for bringing about behavioural changes, promoting better health for students, and teaching about caring for the community environment. For this age group, both prevention and the appropriate care of illness are essential. As a child moves through the school-age years and into adolescence, prevention of behaviours that can lead to health risks takes on a greater importance.
39 : Adolescence One in every five people in the world is an adolescent – defined by WHO as a person between 10 and 19 years of age. Out of 1.2 billion adolescents worldwide, about 85% live in developing countries. Every year, an estimated 1.7 million persons between ages of 10 and 19 lose their lives. There are relatively few deaths due to illnesses. Many adolescents die prematurely due to other causes such as accidents and risky behaviour. Many habits and lifestyle choices that start during these critical years contribute greatly to the overall health of an adult. The WHO estimates that 70% of premature deaths among adults are largely due to behaviour initiated during adolescence.
40 : Main risks of adolescence
41 : Main risks of adolescence: Poor nutrition Sound nutrition remains a foundation stone for good health as the child progresses towards adulthood. In many countries, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is increasing, often co-existing with micronutrient deficiencies. Type II diabetes, previously a disease of middle age, is now increasingly being reported among young people in European countries.
42 : Main risks of adolescence: Chronic conditions Chronic conditions include non-communicable diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, juvenile diabetes, epilepsy, juvenile arthritis sickle-cell disease, and mental disorders. In developed countries, asthma is the leading chronic disease among children. Air pollution, both indoor and outdoor, is one of the triggers for asthma episodes. Over the last decades, asthma and allergies have increased throughout Europe. In Western Europe, the symptom rate is up to ten times that in eastern countries. Chronic conditions typically require comprehensive, ongoing care. Other factors such as family, school or college situations, as well as the health and social services available, determine how a chronic condition is managed.
43 : Adolescence and HIV The HIV/AIDS pandemic is one of the most important and urgent global public health challenges. It is estimated that 50% of all new HIV infections are among young people. In the eastern part of European region, 84% of new cases are under 30 years of age, compared to 31% in the west, and three quarters of them are injecting drug users. Adolescents are at the centre of the pandemic in terms of: transmission, impact, and potential for changing the attitudes and behaviours that underlie this disease. Focusing on young people is likely to be the most effective approach to confronting the epidemic.
44 : HIV prevalence among female antenatal attendees aged 15-19 in southern African countries © WHO
45 : Main risks of adolescence: Mental disorders Pre-existing mental health issues may worsen as the adolescent undergoes this demanding phase of emotional and physical maturation. Impaired mental health is a precursor or consequence of many health-risky behaviours. Adolescence is also a peak age of onset for serious mental illness.  In the European region: The incidence of psychological ill health and mortality increases as a consequence of the breakdown of traditional social and family structures, particularly in communities experiencing significant societal, political and economic change. About 10% to 20% of children have one or more mental or behavioural problem.
46 : Main risks of adolescence: Injury and violence Physical and emotional development accelerates with the arrival of puberty. The young adolescent becomes ever more subject to cultural influences, perceived social norms and pressure from friends although the family support continues to be of significance. It is a normal part of adolescent development to: take on new responsibilities and roles which can incur risks, renegotiate relations with adults in the family and community and with peers, experiment with things symbolic of adult life. Growing independence is associated with increased risk-taking. Accidents, violence, and suicide are among the three most common causes of death in adolescence.
47 : Traffic accidents & adolescents
48 : Teenage pregnancy (Patterson et al, 1989) Cycle of violence
49 : Main risks of adolescence: Drug abuse Adolescence is a period of experimentation and rebellion against authority. This is the age when the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs can become established habits. Their use is a major contributing factor to accidents, suicides, violence, unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases among young people in many countries.  There is an urgent need to create safer and more supportive environments within which young people can develop. Adult role models, positive peer influence and initiatives such as Health Promoting Schools all have an important part to play in healthy adolescent development.
50 : Main risks of adolescence: Unwanted pregnancy With adolescence comes reproductive maturity. Preventing teenage pregnancy is a concern for every country. The rates in western European countries mostly range between 13 and 25 per 1000 young women aged 15 to 19 years. Unwanted pregnancies may lead to serious health consequences for young women, including the risks associated with dangerous or illegal abortions. Young mothers under the age of 20 years are more likely to deliver a low birth weight baby. Low birth weight is associated with reduced health prospects for the child. In this way, the child and adolescent life circle of one generation concludes and evolves into the life cycle of the next generation and thus interventions in one generation will bring benefits to successive generations.
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