Limbic System


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1 : LIMBIC SYSTEM SMS 1084 Dr. Mohanad R. Alwan
2 : The Limbic System also called the limbic gyrus, is a set of brain structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, and limbic cortex, which seemingly support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, long term memory, and olfaction as well as participate in the emotional expression.
3 : Limbic system -The word limbic means the structure which lies on the medial rim of the brain between the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus. - The principal structures of the limbic system are linked by a series of looped connections ( The Papez circuit ) that project into the hypothalamus.
4 :
5 : Components Amygdaloid body Hippocampus (“seahorse”) Cingulate gyus Parahippocampal gyrus Hypothalamus Mamillary bodies Anterior nucleus of thalamus
6 : Functions “Emotional brain Emotional and motivational aspects of behavior. Provides emotional component to learning process: Especially the amygdala. Associated with memory Especially the hippocampus. Associated with pain/pleasure, rage
7 : Limbic Structures Hippocampus Amygdala Olfactory system
8 : From the Digital Anatomist website
9 : Olfactory System From the Digital Anatomist website thalamus.wustl.edu/ course/lim5.gif
10 : Olfactory Cortex Pyriform cortex = 1° olfactory cortex Allocortex, paleocortex 3 layered Also cortical amygdaloid nucleus and periamygdaloid area Projects to ventral striatum, MD thalamus, insula and orbitofrontal cortex Functions: is the sensory system used for olfaction, or the sense of smell.
11 : Olfactory Cortex Monkey brain From the Digital Anatomist website
12 : The Amygdala Burdach 1819: the amygdaloid complex (“almond”) Johnston 1923: central, medial, cortical, basal nuclei Price 1980’s: basolateral, cortical, central medial nucleus De Olmos and Heimer 1991: extended amygdala Swanson 1998: there is no amygdala- alamak
13 : Amygdala most closely associated with emotional behavior “Angst and the Amygdala “Fear, faces, and the human amygdala.” “The neurobiology of psychopathy” “Emotion, decision making, and the amygdala” “Neuroanatomy of autism” “The functional neuroanatomy of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder ): a critical review” “Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence.”
14 : Amygdala Large nuclear group in temporal lobe. Afferents: Olfactory tract Solitary nucleus Parabrachial nucleus Limbic neocortex: Cingulate gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus
15 : Regions of the Amygdala Large basolateral region: Provides direct input to basal ganglia and motor system. Small corticomedial group of nuclei: Related to olfactory cortex. Medial and central nuclei: Connected to hypothalamus.
16 : One view Basolateral Similar to cortex Projects to ventral striatum Has pyramidal like cells Receives input from primary sensory cortex, polysensory cortex and thalamus Connections are reciprocal Cortical Olfactory amygdala Receives direct input form olfactory system, both the olfactory bulb and olfactory cortex Central Medial group Main output of amygdaloid complex Input from hippocampus, orbitofrontal, insula, anterior cingulate cortex as well as basolateral group Projects to hypothalamus, brainstem via stria terminalis and amygdaloventral fugal pathway Part of “central autonomic network”
17 : Amygdala Connections Cerebral cortex Olfactory system Thalamus Brainstem reticular formation Hypothalamus AMYGDALA Stria terminalis Ventral Amygdalofugal fibers
18 : Amygdala Inputs AMYGDALA Corticomedial Nuclear Group Basolateral Nuclear Group Central Nucleus Olfactory System Temporal Lobe (associated with visual, auditory, tactile senses) Brainstem (viscerosensory relay Nuclei: solitary nucleus and parbrachial nucleus) Ventral Amygdalofugal Fibers
19 : Amygdala Outputs AMYGDALA Corticomedial Nuclear Group Basolateral Nuclear Group Central Nucleus Ventral Amygdalofugal Fibers Septal Nuclei Hypothalamus Dorsal Medial Thalamic Nucleus Nucleus Accumbens Hypothalamus Nuclei of ANS Ventral Amygdalofugal Fibers Stria Terminalis
20 : Functions of the Amygdala Relate environmental stimuli to coordinated behavioral autonomic and endocrine responses seen in species-preservation. Responses include: Feeding and drinking Agnostic (fighting) behavior Mating and maternal care Responses to physical or emotional stresses.
21 : Amygdala
22 : The Hippocampus Greek: “Sea Monster” Another terminology mess Allocortex/ archicortex Hippocampal formation (after Amaral and Witter) Dentate gyrus Hippocampus proper “Cornu ammonis” Subicular complex Subiculum Presubiculum parasubiculum Entorhinal cortex
23 : “C” shaped structure in medial temporal lobe http://www.hallym.ac.kr/~de1610/nana/chp-12n.htm#II From Digital Anatomist
24 : Gross Anatomy Septal-temporal poles Fornix Fimbria, body, columns Rodent Human
25 : Connections Afferents: Much of cortex is reciprocally connected to entorhinal cortex Cholinergic and GABA input via septal nuclei Amygdala VTA, LC, Raphe Efferents Via the fornix Precommissural: septal nuclei Post-commisural: mammillary bodies (to anterior thalamic nucleus via mammillothalamic tract)
26 : Functions Consolidation of New Memories Emotions Navigation (usually refers to a function of position, velocity, acceleration and time) Spatial Orientation (ability to maintain our body orientation and/or posture in relation to the surrounding environment (physical space) at rest and during motion. Long Term Memory
27 : Kluver-Bucy Syndrome: Results from bilateral destruction of amygdala. Characteristics: Increase in sexual activity. Compulsive tendency to place objects in mouth. Decreased emotionality. Changes in eating behavior. Visual agnosia (blindness).
28 : Alamak, Finish lah

 

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