Management of menopause
Add to your Conference/Group
Add your comments:
Insert YouTube Videos inside your Slideworld presentation Copy and paste the video URL from YouTube, choose where to insert the video, and press “Submit”. The video will play in your slideshow after sometime.
Enter YouTube video URL
Enter Slide No where you want to insert youtube videos
on Apr 20, 2012 Says :
on Oct 13, 2011 Says :
All the symptoms are nicely covered
on Jul 16, 2011 Says :
on Jul 16, 2011 Says :
menopause symptom sexlife lifestyle
Post a comment
Post Comment on Twitter
Post Comment on SlideWorld
Subscribe to follow-up comments
SlideWorld will not store your password. SlideWorld will maintain your privacy.
Subscribe to follow-up comments
Slide 1 :
Management of menopause OS Tang Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology University of Hong Kong
Slide 2 :
Climacteric The phase in the aging process of women marking the transition from the reproductive stage of life to the non-reproductive stage
Slide 3 :
Menopause The final menstrual period and occurs during the climacteric. The average age of menopause is 51.
Slide 4 :
Life expectancy and age of menopause
Slide 5 :
Menopause Premature menopause Surgical menopause Natural menopause
Slide 6 :
Target organs of oestrogen Bone Urogenital Vasomotor Heart Eyes Teeth Breast Colon
Slide 7 :
Consequences of oestrogen loss
Slide 8 :
Menopausal symptoms Vasomotor symptoms: hot flushes, night sweats and palpitation Urogenital atrophy: vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, pruritus vulvae, urinary frequency, urgency, and recurrent cystitis Psychological symptoms: irritability, nervousness, depression, insomnia and anxiety
Slide 9 :
Osteoporosis Oestrogen deficiency Peak bone mass at 30-35 years old Bone loss at a rate of 0.5-1% per year afterward Bone loss at a rate of 2-3% per year for 10 years after menopause Osteoporosis is associated with fracture ( femoral neck, vertebral body and distal radius)
Slide 10 :
Risk factors of osteoporosis Family history Ethnicity Early menopause Hypoestrogenism (excessive exercise, anorexia, bulimia) Hyperthyroidism, excessive thyroxine therapy Cigarette smoking Caffeine High alcohol intake
Slide 11 :
Cardiovascular disease Rapid increase in mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease after menopause Epidemiological evidence suggests that HRT is associated with 50% reduction in cardiovascular risk in menopausal women There is no prospective randomised data to show that HRT is effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Slide 12 :
Management of menopause Advise on a healthy life style Psychological support Hormone replacement therapy
Slide 13 :
Management of menopausal symptoms Understand menopause Strengthening of self-image Avoid spicy food, alcohol, strong tea and coffee. Healthy life style Hormone Replacement Therapy
Slide 14 :
Prevention of osteoporosis Change lifestyle risk factors Exercise Adequate calcium / vitamin D intake Hormone Replacement Therapy Alendronate Raloxifene
Slide 15 :
Prevention of cardiovascular disease Healthy life style Diet Avoid smoking Control of hypertension, diabetic and hyperlipidaemia ?Hormone Replacement Therapy (Not effective for secondary prevention. ? Primary prevention)
Slide 16 :
Possible mechanism of cardioprotection by HRT Favourable lipid profile: ? HDL, ? LDL, ? Lipoprotein (a) Other effects: ? insulin sensitivity, vascular dilatation, ? coagulation factors
Slide 17 :
Hormone replacement therapy Informed choice Risks and benefits of taking HRT Role of doctor: weighing up the pros and cons for individual woman
Slide 18 :
Slide 19 :
Indications for HRT Relief of menopausal symptoms Long term prevention of osteoporosis
Slide 20 :
Slide 21 :
Absolute contraindications Existing breast cancer Existing endometrial cancer Venous thrombo-embolism Acute liver disease
Slide 22 :
Routes of administration of oestrogen Oral Transdermal Implants Local vaginal preparation
Slide 23 :
Oral therapy Natural occurring oestrogens: includes premarin and various oestradiol preparations. These oestrogens are metabolised in the liver to the weaker metabolite oestrone and then converted to oestradiol in the peripheral circulation and in the target tissue. Tibolone: a steroid hormone that has oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic properties. Synthetic oestrogens: such as mestranol or ethinyl oestrodiol are not generally prescribed for older women for HRT.
Slide 24 :
Transdermal therapy Patches (oestrogen only or combined preparation) or oestrogen gels Women’s preference Skin irritation may be a problem but new matrix patches and the gels are usually well tolerated Route of choice for women with risk factors for venous thrombo-embolism, liver disease or gastro-intestinal problems
Slide 25 :
Oestrogen implants Now less widely used Implants should be given no more than every 6 months Not commonly used in HK
Slide 26 :
Local vaginal therapy Useful for local vaginal dryness and symptoms of urgency Contraindication to systemic HRT but require oestrogen for local symptoms
Slide 27 :
HRT regimens Women who have had a hysterectomy only need to take oestrogen Women with an intact uterus must take progestogen for endometrial protection to prevent endometrial cancer or hyperplasia Regular surveillance of endometrium is required for women (extreme intolerance of progestogen) on unopposed oestrogen
Slide 28 :
The Hong Kong College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
Slide 29 :
HRT regimens Sequential preparation: progestogen added for 12-14 days each month. Some women will not bleed on sequential preparations and this is not a cause for concern provided that the progestogen is taken correctly. Continuous combined HRT: give oestrogen and progestogen daily. These preparation induces endometrial atrophy. Intermittent bleeding and spotting are common in the first few month of use. More suitable for women who are at least one year since their last spontaneous period.
Slide 30 :
Progestogen Oral or transdermal form Levo-norgestrel releasing intra-uterine system
Slide 31 :
Oral progestogens C21 progesterone derivatives : dydrogesterone or medroxyprogesterone acetate C19 nor-testosterone derivatives: norethisterone acetate or levonorgestrel
Slide 32 :
Side effects of HRT Nausea breast pain heavy or painful withdrawal period premenstrual syndrome type of side effects weight gain
Slide 33 :
Risk of HRT Breast cancer Thrombo-embolism
Slide 34 :
HRT and breast cancer
Slide 35 :
HRT and breast cancer Breast cancer is a hormone dependent cancer and its relationship with HRT is a complex one. The chance of a woman developing breast cancer is 1 in 24 in HK
Slide 36 :
HRT and breast cancer No data from randomised trial of any significant size The Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer reported in Lancet in 1997 is now widely accepted to represent the present situation.
Slide 37 :
Findings of the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in breast cancer Collaborative Group on Hormone Factors in Breast Cancer Lancet 1997;350:1047-59
Slide 38 :
For women aged 50-70 years not using HRT, about 45 in every 1000 will have breast cancer diagnosed over the next 20 years. Collaborative Group on Hormone Factors in Breast Cancer Lancet 1997;350:1047-59
Slide 39 :
The extra risk of developing breast cancer on HRT does not persist beyond about 5 years after stopping treatment. Women taking HRT diagnosed with breast cancer are less likely to have tumours with metastatic spread and therefore have an improved prognosis. Regular mammography is indicated for women on HRT after 50 years old. There is no indication to arrange mammography routinely for women commencing HRT under the age of 50 years.
Slide 40 :
HRT and venous thrombo-embolism
Slide 41 :
HRT and venous thrombo-embolism Natural oestrogens Women taking HRT have a 2-4 fold increase in risk of venous thrombo-embolism (VTE). Overall risk remain small: 1 in 5000 and mortality from VTE is around 1-2%. Women with significant past history of VTE should have a thrombophilia screen before commercing HRT
Slide 42 :
Duration of treatment
Slide 43 :
Indication of HRT
Slide 44 :
Menopausal symptoms Duration of treatment will depend upon the women’s preference and the presence of risk factors In the absence of risk factors, HRT can be stopped after 2 years
Slide 45 :
Prevention of Osteoporosis 10 years after HRT has been stopped, bone density and fracture risk are similar in women who had used HRT and those have not Long term treatment (>10-15 years) is required to prevent osteoporosis Constant reassessment (general health, risk factors and life expectancy) is required.
Slide 46 :
Monitoring of women on HRT Compliance of treatment, symptoms control, side effects and bleeding pattern Cervical smear
Management of Conges...
Management of Non ST...
Managing Asthma Asth...
Management of Diabet...
Free Powerpoint Templates
3 Years ago.
22631 Views, 1 favourite
menopausal symptoms,menopause,menopause age,menopause depression,menopause hormones,menopause insom
menopausal symptoms,menopause,menopause age,menopause depression,menopause hormones,menopause insomnia,menopause signs,menopause symptoms,menopause treatment,menopause women,natural menopause,post menopause,signs of menopause,surgical menopause,symptoms of menopause- Slides
More By User
Flag as inappropriate
Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate. If needed, use the
form to let us know more details.
Other Terms Of Service Violation