Micronutrients


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1 : Micronutrients Dr. Sujnanendra Mishra
2 : What Is Nutrition? -The study of how your body uses the food that you eat.
3 : What is a Nutrient A nutrient is a chemical substance in food that helps maintain the body. Some provide energy. All help build cells and tissues, regulate bodily processes such as breathing. No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function.
4 : The six Classifications of Nutrients Vitamins Minerals Water Protein Carbohydrates Sugars Starches Cellulose Fats
5 : Nutrients that have Calories: Proteins Carbohydrates Fats
6 : 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Activity Level 4. Climate 5. Health 6. State of nutrition Variables which affect nutrient needs:
7 : Structure and function: Carbohydrates are sugars and starches that the body uses for ENERGY! PLANTS are the major source of carbohydrates in the food we eat. Carbohydrates
8 : Simple Carbohydrates Sugars that are quickly digested and provide a BOOST of energy for the body Foods with LOTS of sugar: oranges, milk, cookies, candy
9 : Starches that are composed of many sugars linked together They provide the body with long-term energy since they are digested more slowly than sugars. Foods with LOTS of starch: rice, beans, potatoes Complex Carbohydrates
10 : Protein Structure: Proteins are made from many amino acids connected together in different arrangements. Function: Provide the building materials your body needs to grow and repair itself
11 : Essential Amino Acids 9 of the 20 amino acids are called essential amino acids because you must obtain them from the foods you eat since your body cannot make them.
12 : Complete proteins: Foods containing all the essential amino acids Examples: fish, meat, eggs, milk, cheese Incomplete proteins: Foods that are missing some essential amino acids Examples: Legumes, nuts, whole grains
13 : Functions: ENERGY source for the body (more than carbs and proteins) Help protect and cushion vital organs as well as joints Insulate the body Fat
14 : Fat Structure: Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids which are substances that do not dissolve in water. Fatty acids are the building blocks of fats.
15 : Contain fatty acids that are missing hydrogen atoms At room temperature, they are typically in liquid form. They are less harmful to the circulatory system than saturated fats. Foods with a lot of unsaturated fat: canola, safflower, and peanut oils Unsaturated fats:
16 : : Contain fatty acids with the MAXIMUM amount of hydrogen atoms At room temperature, they are typically in solid form. Saturated fats
17 : Diets with TOO MUCH saturated fat have been known to cause heart disease. Foods with a lot of saturated fat: beef fat, egg yolks, dairy products
18 : What is a calorie? The energy obtained from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats is measured in units called calories. Calories
19 : Calorie Calculations Carbohydrates 1g = 4 calories Protein 1g = 4 calories Fat 1g = 9 calories Alcohol 1g = 7 calories
20 : Sample Calculation A slice of bread has 9g of carbohydrates, 2g of protein, and 1g of fat. Get out a piece of paper and see if you can do the calculations…..
21 : 9 grams carbohydrates x 4 calories/gram = 36 calories+ 2 grams protein x 4 calories/gram = 8 calories+ 1 gram fat x 9 calories/gram = 9 calories_________________________ Total calories = 53
22 : Do you know the MOST IMPORTANT nutrient? It’s Water! 60%-80% of the human body is WATER!
23 : Function: Assists with the transport of materials in the body by making up most of the liquid part of blood (plasma), helps regulate body temperature, and helps break down food in the digestive system Food sources: vegetables, fruit, milk
24 : Special Nutrient ,Fibre Fibre is not a nutrient, but it is very important to have enough of it in your diet. Food lack in Fibre CAUSES constipation,haemorrhoids, diverticulitis and IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), diabetes or heart disease . The fibre found in plant foods comes in two forms: insoluble and soluble.
25 : Insoluble fibre or‘roughage’, Insoluble fibre is a bit like a broom that sweeps through your large intestine, keeping it clean and free from a build-up of toxin. Soluble fibre is helps you to maintain more stable blood-sugar levels, lower your cholesterol levels, feel fuller after eating; and, like insoluble fibre, it reduces your exposure to toxins. Special Nutrient ,Fibre
26 : Soluble fiber is important for the management of blood cholesterol and keeping cancer away. Most soluble fiber is used by the bacteria in the colon to produce short-chain fatty acids which provide energy to the body, approximately 2 Calories (8.5 kilojoules) per gram of soluble fiber. Becuse these calories do not raise blood sugar, so they don't count towards the total carbs. In the US, the soluble fiber is counted as 4 Calories per gram, but insoluble fiber is usually treated as 0 Calories per gram and not mentioned on the label. In some countries, fiber is not listed on nutrition labels, and is considered 0 Calories/gram when the food's total Calories are computed. http://www.fatfreekitchen.com/soluble-fiber-foods-list.html
27 : Micronutrients Minerals and vitamins are called micronutrients since they are needed by your body in SMALL amounts. The minerals and most of the vitamins your body needs must be obtained from the FOODS you eat since your body cannot make them.
28 : Micronutrients: Minerals Minerals are INORGANIC substances that are required by your body in order to develop and grow properly. Some Important Minerals: Calcium Iron Potassium Magnesium
29 : Micronutrients: Minerals Calcium Function: Helps build strong bones and teeth, regulates blood clotting Food sources: dairy products, leafy and green vegetables
30 : Micronutrients: Minerals Iron Function: Helps build hemoglobin which is the oxygen-carrying part of your red blood cells Food sources: eggs, meats, whole grains
31 : Micronutrients: Minerals Potassium Function: Helps regulate fluid balance in the body, assists with the normal functioning of muscles and nerves Food sources: bananas, carrots, milk
32 : Micronutrients: Minerals Magnesium Function: Involved in the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates, assists with bone growth and proper muscle functioning Food sources: milk, meat, nuts
33 : Micronutrients: Vitamins Vitamins: Group of complex compounds that help your body maintain normal metabolism, growth, and development Two Groups of Vitamins: Water-Soluble Fat-Soluble
34 : Water-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins that dissolve in water and are NOT stored in your body for future use Vitamin B and Vitamin C Micronutrients: Vitamins
35 : Examples of Water-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin C: Fights against infection, maintains healthy gums, strengthens and maintains blood vessel structure Food sources: citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables
36 : Micronutrients: Vitamins Vitamin B Complex/Folic acid: Helps prevent birth defects, and is needed in the formation of red blood cells and nucleic acids Food sources: beets, broccoli, avocado, turkey, bok choy, and lentils.
37 : Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamins that dissolve into and are transported by fat They can be stored in fat tissue, the liver, and the kidneys. Vitamins A, D, E, and K Micronutrients: Vitamins
38 : Examples of Fat-Soluble Vitamins: Vitamin A: Maintains good vision, promotes body cell growth, helps protect teeth Food sources: green vegetables, dairy products
39 : Vitamin D: Promotes the development of healthy bones and teeth Food sources: eggs, salmon, fortified breakfast cereal. Other sources include sunlight
40 : NUTRITION AND HEALTH
41 : Poor environmental influences in childhood influencing adult height and influences during pregnancy
42 : LBW compared with a normal full term infant
43 : World distribution of low birth weight newborns
44 : Fully developed placenta Placental transfer of nutrients
45 : The cycle of undernutrition
46 : Total DNA in the brains of small-for-dates infants
47 : Arrested head growth in late pregnancy
48 : Reduced head growth early in pregnancy
49 : Role of micronutrients in the periconceptional period
50 :
51 :
52 :
53 :
54 : Consequences of vitamin and mineral deficiencies during the life cycle
55 : Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among preschool-aged children by country
56 : Anaemia as a public health problem by country: Preschool-aged children
57 : Iodine status of school-aged children by country, based on the median urinary iodine concentration
58 : Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt (2000–2007)
59 : The main causes of vitamin and mineral deficiencies
60 : A traditional, balanced, Japanese meal
61 : An assortment of grains
62 : The END!!

 

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micronutrients are needed only in minuscule amounts, these substances are the “magic wands” that e    more
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