NUTRITION, ENERGY and BALANCE


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tjabkwyddmg    on Jan 12, 2013 Says :

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Liam    on Mar 13, 2012 Says :

Hi
anil    on Sep 14, 2011 Says :

The nutritive values are nicely explained
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  Notes
 
 
1 : NUTRITION, ENERGY BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE REGULATION D. C. MIKULECKY PROFESSOR OF PHYSIOLOGY AND FACULTY MENTORING PROGRAM
2 : ENERGY THE CAPACITY TO DO WORK THE CALORIE IS THE AMMOUNT OF HEAT ENERGY NECESSARY TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREE CENTIGRADE THE NUTRITIONAL CALORIE IS 1000 CALORIES OR THE KILOCALORIE
3 : ENERGY BALANCE INPUT - OUTPUT = STORAGE OR DEPLETION OUTPUT = INTERNAL WORK + EXTERNAL WORK INTERNAL WORK ------> HEAT
4 : STORAGE AND/OR DEPLETION NUETRAL ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INPUT AND OUTPUT MATCH POSITIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN INTAKE EXCEEDS OUTPUT - ENERGY IS STORED AS GLYCOGEN OR FAT NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE OCCURS WHEN OUTPUT EXCEEDS INTAKE- ENERGY STORES ARE DEPLETED
5 : FOOD AS STORED FUEL 3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS
6 : ENERGY INPUT 50% GOES TO ATP 50% GOES TO HEAT CARBOHYDRATE, FAT AND PROTEIN
7 : THE METABOLIC RATE METABOLIC RATE = ENERGY EXPENDITURE PER UNIT TIME (Calories/hour)
8 : FACTORS INFLUENCING METABOLIC RATE EXERCISE FOOD INTAKE SHIVERING ANXIETY
9 : BASAL METABOLIC RATE BODY’S “IDLING SPEED” DIRECT CALORIMETERY INDIRECT CALORIMETERY
10 : CONTROL OF FOOD INTAKE POORLY UNDERSTOOD OBESITY IS TOO MUCH STORED FAT LIPOSTATIC THEORY GI DISTENSION THEORY GLUCOSTATIC THEORY ISCHYMETRIC THEORY CCK SECRETION THEORY PSYCHOSOCIAL INFLUENCES
11 : FOOD INTAKE CONTROLED BY HYPOTHALAMUS FEEDING CENTERS SATIETY CENTERS
12 : FOOD AS FUEL CARBOHYDRATE 4 CAL/G PROTEIN 4 CAL/G FAT 9 CAL/GRAM ETHANOL 7 CAL/G
13 : FOOD AS STORED FUEL 3500 CALORIES = 1 LB OF BODY MASS
14 : ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS VALINE THREONINE ISOLEUCINE LEUCINE HISTADINE (IN INFANTS) METHIONINE, PHENYLALANINE TRYPTOPHAN LYSINE
15 : PROTEIN QUALITY ONLY 20% OF THE RDA NEEDS TO BE COMPLETE PROTEIN (11 GRAMS FOR MALES 9 GRAMS FOR FEMALES …A LITTLE MORE THAN SUPPLIED BY A GLASS OF MILK) MORE DIVERSITY IS THE KEY THOUGH: 60% RDA FROM GRAIN, 35% FROM LEGUMES, 5% FROM GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES
16 : PLANTS AND PROTEIN QUALITY
17 : PLANTS AS A PROTEIN SOURCE 65% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY WORLD WIDE 32% OF THE PER CAPITA SUPPLY IN THE US
18 : PROTEIN SOURCES-EXCEPTIONS SOYBEANS QUINONA SPINACH HAVE THE SAME QUALITY AS MILK
19 : INCOMPLETE PROTEINS NEEDED TO MEET REQUIREMENTS 2 2/3 CUPS COOKED WHEAT 3 CUPS COOKED RICE 5 3/4 SLICES BASIC BREAD 3 CUPS DICED POTATOES 1/3 CUP SOY SPREAD 1/2 CUP WHEAT GERM 2 3/4 CUPS RICE WITH 1/3 CUP COOKED PEAS
20 : SOME DISEASES LINKED WITH DIET CANCER HEART DISEASE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE OBESITY DIVERTICULITIS
21 : FOOD INGREDIENTS AND DISEASE REFINED SUGAR FAT SALT LOW IN FIBER
22 : CANCER AND DIET: PHYTOCHEMICALS FOUND ONLY IN PLANTS IMMUNE FUNCTION HORMONE BALANCE DETOXIFICATION
23 : CANCER AND DIET N.R.C.RECOMMENDATIONS EAT LESS FAT (30% OR LESS 0F TOTAL CALORIES) EAT FRUITS, VEGITABLES, AND WHOLE-GRAIN CEREAL FOODS EVERY DAY (ESPECIALLY THOSE HIGH IN VITAMINS A AND C) AVOID HIGH DOSE SUPPLIMENTS OF VITAMINS OR OTHER NUTRIENTS ALCOHOL ONLY IN MODERATION
24 : SOME WAYS TO CUT DOWN ON FAT EAT MORE VEGETARIAN MEALS EAT MORE FRESH FRUIT OR YOGURT INSTEAD OF DESSERTS USE YOGURT AS DRESSING INSTEAD OF OIL USE FRESH HERBS INSTEAD OF BUTTER (AND INSTEAD OF SALT)
25 : TYPES OF VEGETARIAN DIETS VEGAN: NO ANIMAL PRODUCTS (NEED DIETARY SUPPLIMENTS AND VARIED PROTEIN SOURCES) LACTO: +DAIRY PRODUCTS LACTO-OVO: +EGGS
26 : FIBER ROUGHLY SPEAKING, EVERYTHING IN PLANT FOODS OUR DIGESTIVE ENZYMES CAN NOT BREAK DOWN NURTURES AEROBIC BACTERIA IN GUT SOLUABLE FIBER REDUCES INSULIN NEED IN DIABETICS CHELATORS-INCREASE NEED FOR MINERALS
27 : TYPES OF FIBER PECTINS: IN CELL WALL OF FRUITS, BIND BILE SALTS GUMS: STICKY SUBSTANCES EXUDED BY PLANTS, LOWER CHOLESTEROL UPTAKE AND SLOW SUGAR ABSORPTION CELLULOSE: PLANT CELL WALLS, BULK AND TOXIN ELIMINATION HEMICELLULOSES: PLANT CELL WALLS, BULK LIGNIN: ROOT VEGETABLES, BULK
28 : EFFECT ON MICROFLORA LOWER TOTAL ANAEROBIC, IN PARTICULAR, CLOSTRIDIUM DIET CAN ALTER THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE FLORA MEAT AND UNREFINED SUGAR INCREASES UNWANTED BACTERIA VEGETARIAN DIET LOWERS RISKS OF BOWEL CANCER
29 : RECOMMENDED FIBER INTAKE 20 - 25 g/day WITH AN UPPER LIMIT OF 35 g/day FAMILY HISTORY OF DIET-IMPLICATED CANCER 35-40 g/day DIABETICS UP TO 50 g/day
30 : SOURCES OF FIBER LEGUMES (ALSO PROTEIN SOURCE) FRUITS AND VEGETABLES WHOLE GRAIN CEREALS AND FLOURS
31 : PROPOSED MECHANISMS FOR FIBER CANCER PREVENTION INCREASED FECAL BULK DECREASES CARCINOGEN CONCENTRATION CHANGE IN FLORA SHORTENED TRANSIT TIME DECREASES CONTACT TIME AND TIME FOR SYNTHESIS OF TOXINS CHANGE IN pH
32 : CHELATORS LOWER MINERAL ABSORPTION PHYTATES OXALATES
33 : TEMPERATURE REGULATION INTERNAL CORE TEMPERATURE IS 100 DEGREES F HEAT BALANCE RESEMBLES ENERGY BALANCE HEAT EXCHANGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
34 : HEAT BALANCE RESEMBLES ENERGY BALANCE INPUT - OUTPUT = + >>RISE IN TEMPERATURE INPUT - OUTPUT = - >>FALL IN TEMPERATURE INPUT - OUTPUT = 0 >>NO CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE
35 : HEAT EXCHANGE WITH THE ENVIRONMENT HEAT ALWAYS MOVES FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE TO LOW RADIATION CONDUCTION CONVECTION EVAPORATION
36 : RADIATION THE EMISSION OF HEAT ENERGY BY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION, IN THE FORM OF HEAT WAVES
37 : CONDUCTION TRANSFER OF HEAT BETWEEN BODIES AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE IN CONTACT WITH EACH OTHER
38 : CONVECTION TRANSFER OF HEAT BY AIR CURRENTS
39 : EVAPORATION THE TRANSITION FROM LIQUID TO GAS USES HEAT ENERGY UNCONTROLLED: FROM RESPIRATORY TRACT AND SKIN SURFACE CONTROLLED: SWEATING
40 : THERMOREGULATION PATHWAYS INPUTS TO HYPOTHALAMUS BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES SHIVERING VASODILATION OR CONSTRICTION OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN SWEATING
41 : INPUTS TO HYPOTHALAMUS FROM THE SKIN: PERIPHERAL THERMORECEPTORS FROM THE CORE: CENTRAL THERMORECEPTORS
42 : BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES MOVE TO A MORE SUITABLE LOCATION (SHADE, INDOORS, ETC.) CHANGE CLOTHING CHANGE ACTIVITY LEVEL
43 : SHIVERING RHYTHMIC, OSCILLATING SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS (ABOUT 10-20 PER SECOND) MAY INCREASE INTERNAL HEAT PRODUCTION 2-5 TIMES. CHEMICAL THERMOGENESIS (BROWN FAT)
44 : VASODILATION OR CONSTRICTION OF BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN SKIN BLOOD FLOW VARIES FROM 400 ML/MIN TO 2,500 ML/MN VASOCONSTRICTION OR DILATION OF THE BLOOD VESSELS IN THE SKIN IS CONTROLLED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS
45 : SWEATING CONTROLED BY SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPENDS ON RELATIVE HUMIDITY OF SURROUNDING AIR
46 : CENTRAL CONTROL HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS HEAT PRODUCTION HEAT LOSS HEAT CONSERVATION REGULATES CORE TEMPERATURE HOMEOSTATICALLY
47 : FEVER FIGHTS INFECTION ENDOGENOUS PYROGEN FROM WBC LOCAL RELEASE OF PROSTAGLANDINS “RESETS THERMOSTAT” SHIVERING SKIN VASOCONSTRICTION

 

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Healthy eating habits lads to healthy and normal life. healthy diets and eating habits are essentia    more
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