OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS


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1 : Occupational Health Hazards Dr Ghazwan Al-Duliamy Peaceland Medical service Oman
2 : Is part of everyday living. It is an important consideration for everyone in everything he/she does, in the home, at work or play, on streets and highways – wherever he/she goes. SAFETY
3 : Presentation Agenda * Occupational Health and Safety? Definition and Introduction * Why is occupational health and safety important? * Direct and indirect effect of work hazards. * Common workplace hazards - Chemical - Mechanical - Physical - Biological - Psychosocial - Musculoskeletal * Management and Prevention of Occupational Health Hazards
4 : What is Occupational Health and Safety? Occupational health and safety (OHS) encompasses the social, mental and physical well-being of workers, which means “whole person”.
5 : OSHA Target, Is to assure as far as possible every working man & woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions. Successful occupational health and safety practice requires the collaboration and participation of both employers and workers in health and safety programmes.
6 : Why is occupational health and safety important? Work plays a central role in people's lives, since most workers spend at least eight hours a day in the workplace. Therefore, work environments should be safe and healthy. Yet this is not the case for many workers. Every day workers all over the world are faced with a multitude of health hazards, such as: dusts; gases; noise; vibration; extreme temperatures.
7 : Unfortunately some employers assume little responsibility for the protection of workers' health and safety. Also, some employers do not even know that they have the moral and often legal responsibility to protect workers. As a result of the hazards and a lack of attention given to health and safety, work-related accidents and diseases are common in all parts of the world. Work-related accidents or diseases are very costly and can have many serious direct and indirect effects on the lives of workers and their families.
8 : The direct costs of an injury or illness are: the pain and suffering of the injury or illness; the loss of income; the possible loss of a job; health-care costs
9 : The indirect costs are: the injured/ill worker has to be replaced; a new worker has to be trained and given time to adjust; it takes time before the new worker is producing at the rate of the original worker; poor health and safety conditions in the workplace can also result in poor public relations.
10 : Common workplace hazard Occupational health hazards refers to the identification and control of the risks arising from physical, chemical, and other workplace hazards in order to establish and maintain a safe and healthy working environment. Chemical hazards include: Acids Bases Heavy metals Lead Solvents Petroleum Particulates Asbestos and other fine dust/fibrous materials Silica Fumes (noxious gases/vapors) Highly-reactive chemicals Fire, conflagration and explosion hazards: Explosion Deflagration Detonation Conflagration
11 : Chemical Hazards Chemicals can enter the body through: inhalation breathed in ingestion absorption accidental swallowing through eating, drinking, or smoking absorbed through contact with skin or eyes Inhalation is typically the most common way chemicals can enter the body in a work situation. Injection, in which a chemical enters the body when the skin is punctured, occurs rarely (e.g., paint from a high-pressure spray gun).
12 : Chemical Hazards Two types of health effects from chemical exposure Some chemicals can have both acute and chronic effects, e.g., carbon monoxide.
13 : Common workplace hazard Mechanical hazards include : Impact force Collisions Falls from height Struck by objects Confined space Slips and trips Falling on a pointed object Compressed air/high pressure fluids (such as cutting fluid) Equipment-related injury By type of injury : Crushing Cutting Friction and abrasion Shearing Stabbing and puncture
14 : Common workplace hazard physical hazards include : Noise Vibration Lighting Barotraumas (hypobaric/hyperbaric pressure) Radiation Electricity Asphyxiation Cold stress (hypothermia) Heat stress (hyperthermia) Dehydration ( sweating )
15 : Common workplace hazard Biological Hazards include : Bacteria Virus Fungi Blood-borne pathogens Tuberculosis Brucellosis, anthrax, tetanus, encephalitis, fungal infection. OCCUPATIONAL CANCER Cancer of the skin, lungs, bladder - OCCUPATIONAL DERMATOSIS Dermatitis, eczema
16 : Common workplace hazard Psychosocial issues include: Work-related stress Violence from outside the organization Bullying, which may include emotional and verbal abuse Sexual harassment Mobbing Exposure to unhealthy elements such as tobacco, uncontrolled alcohol. Musculoskeletal disorders : avoided by the employment of good ergonomic design
17 : Multiple health hazards In some cases, workers can be exposed to several health hazards at the same time or on the same worksite over time. This worker is simultaneously exposed to noise, silica dust, vibration and ergonomic hazards.
18 : HAZARDS Any occupational condition or circumstance which is likely to cause death, injury or illness. Hazards Recognition
19 : Measures for Health promotion of Workers Nutrition Communicable disease control Environmental sanitation Mental health Measures for women and children Health education Family planning
20 : Management of Occupational Health Hazards Hierarchy of Controls 1. Eliminate: The first principle of all risk management is to identify if the hazard can be removed. 2. Substitute: If the hazard cannot be eliminated can it be substitute for a lower hazard? 3. Reduce or Contain: (Engineering Controls) Reduce the number of individuals at risk. 4. Training and Supervision: Regular/ Relevant /Review 5. Administrative Controls: i.e., Where ever possible Safe systems of Work, include policies and procedures should be available to the workforce . 6. Personal Protective Equipment: This should be used only as a last resort, after all other control measures have been considered.
21 : Prevention of Occupational health Hazards MEDICAL MEASURES Pre-employment health examination Medical and health care services Health education and counseling Periodic Health Screening Health Surveillance Post accident assessments and advice Sickness absence advice Return to work assessments Functional assessments Employee rehabilitation Health Education and Promotion
22 : Cont… ENGINEERING MEASURES Design of building Good housekeeping General ventilation Dust-enclosure and isolation Local exhaust ventilation Protection device Environmental monitoring Statistical monitoring and research
23 : Summary Oilfield Safety is no different than Safety anywhere else. Different tools, different equipment, but the same COMMON SENSE principles. Look for Hazards, protect you and your co-worker. Remember, Identify the Hazard, Develop a plan to fix it and then Fix it! Fix Your Hazards = No Accidents Get everyone interested. Its for you good and theirs.
24 : TAKE GOOD CARE OF YOUR HEALTH…

 

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