OCCURRENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER, SALMONELLA, YERSINIA ENTEROCOLICA AND LYSTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN SOME RETAIL FOOD PRODUCTS IN NOVI SAD
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Slide 1 :
Trajkovic-Pavlovic Ljiljana Popovic Milka, Novakovic Budimka, Gusman Pasterko Vera, Jevtic Marija and Mirilov Jelena OCCURRENCE OF CAMPYLOBACTER, SALMONELLA, YERSINIA ENTEROCOLICA AND LYSTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN SOME RETAIL FOOD PRODUCTS IN NOVI SAD Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina School of Medicine University of Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia
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Introduction The Province of Vojvodina (PV) covers one third of the territory of the Republic Serbia and has population of about two million inhabitants. According to data obtained through the official reporting system, the incidence rate of food borne diseases in the PV has rising tendency in the recent two decades (…next slide)¹. Around 30% of the total number of reported cases of food borne diseases has a full laboratory confirmation of the causative agent¹. The most frequently identified agent was Salmonella spp, followed by Campylobacter spp¹. Yersinia enterocolitica was also identified, but proportionally in much lesser extent compared to previously mentioned bacteria¹. Listeria monocytogenes has not been identified as a causative agent of food borne diseases , but was involved as a causative agent in several septicemias in patients with other primary illness¹. -------------- ¹Center for diseases prevention and control of the Institute of Public Health f Vojvodina, Novi Sad, 2007
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Infectio inestinalis bacterialis in AP Vojvodina 1979-2005* Number of the reported cases *Center for diseases prevention and control of the Institut of Public Health of Vojvodina: Report on infectious diseases, 2006
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Only a part of the reported cases of intestinal infections caused by Salmonella spp. is fully epidemiologically covered including laboratory testing of the suspected food. The reported cases of intestinal campylobacteriosis, intestinal yersiniosis and causes of septicemia due to Listeria monocytogenes were not fully epidemiologically investigated and there were no data available on food suspected as a route of transmission¹. As to the existing country legislation, a routine foodstuff control for Salmonella spp is obligatory, but this does not for Campylobacter, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes. Presence of these bacteria in food can be investigated provided this is a from the epidemiological point of view indicated 2,3,4. There were no other available data food microbiological hazard assessment. The purpose of this paper was to determinate the frequency of Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp, Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes in certain , common in use, food products retailed in Novi Sad --------------- 1Center for diseases prevention and control of the Institut of Public Health of Vojvodina: Report on infectious diseases, 2006 ²Law on food and consumer goods safety, Official Journal of SFRY 1991:53/91. 3Provisions on microbiological criteria on food safety. Official Journal FRY1993:26/93 4 Law on protection of the population from infectious diseases. Official Journal RS.2004:125/04.
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Method In the period July-October 2004 and July-October 2005 a pilot project of laboratory examination of the presence of Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in 257 sample (….next slide ) of foodstuffs retailed in Novi Sad was performed. The project was conducted during routine microbiological safety control by the Sanitary Inspectorate of the Secretariat of Health and Social Welfare of the PV. The samples were taken randomly by the trained samplers. The laboratory methods recommended by the FAO were applied mining that classical culture growing methods were performed ( Andews W: Manual for food safety control, 4 rev 1: Microbiological analysis, FAO, Rome, 1992). Serotypisation of the tested pathogens was not performed5. A statistically significant difference between percentage of contaminated samples of various food groups with examined pathogens using Student’s t-test was calculated 5 Andrews W: Manual of food quality control,4 rev.1: Microbiological analysis. FAO, Rome 1992.
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Figure 2: Food samples Total number of the tested samples: 257
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Results The laboratory examinations showed that 21(8.17%) samples were contaminated with Campylobacter spp, Salmonella spp or Listeria monocytogenes except for one sample that was contaminated with two bacteria species: Campylobacter spp and Salmonella spp. Yersinia enterocolitica was not detected in any of the tested samples. The frequency of contaminated fresh meat samples with one of the three identified pathogens was 22% and frequency of contaminated ready- to-eat food was 1.195. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05), Table 1. Occurrence of the tested bacteria in fresh meat samples are shown at Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4.
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Table 1: Number of contaminated samples with one of the tested pathogens t = 4.5; df = 255; p<0.05
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Table 2: Campylobacter occurrence in fresh meat samples t = 1.1; df = 88; p>0.05
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Table 3: Salmonella occurrence in fresh meat samples t = 1.4; df = 88; p>0.05
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Table 4: Listeria monocytogenes occurrence in fresh meat samples t = 0.4; df = 88; p>0.05
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Results Campylobacter was identified in 11 samples(18.3%) of poultry meat and 3 samples (10.0%) of other fresh meat. The difference was not statistically significant. campylobacter was also identified in one(0.6%) of ready to eat food( cheese salad, a topping for fast food). Salmonella spp. was identified in 2 samples(3.3%) of fresh meat( white soft cheese). Listeria monocytogenes was identified in 3 samples(5.0%) of fresh poultry meat and one (3.3%) sample of fresh meat. Difference was not statistically significant. This pathogen was not identified in any read-to-eat food. Yersinia enterocolitica was not identified an any of the tested food samples
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Discussion Epidemiological investigations brought evidences that exposure to food of animal origin is major risk factor for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, listeriosis and yersiniosis. Exponential like dose dependent association exists between number of live cells of pathogen bacteria in consumed food and risk for occurrence of intestinal infection. Related to the published data in the recent two decades, Campylobacter spp. was identified as a great problem for meat, particularly for poultry meat, industry. Our results are in line with these investigations. Campylobacter was the most frequently isolated pathogen within all tested samples and there were no statistically difference between number of samples of fresh poultry meat and other fresh meat. This pathogen was also isolated from one sample of ready to eat food, cheese salad-topping for fast food. It is difficult to speculate about real reason of contamination. It could originate from row unpasteuerized milk and cheese, or it could appear as a result of poor handling practice.
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Discussion Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from samples of fresh poultry meat and fresh ready –made grilling meat. This pathogen was not isolated from chilled food such were samples of various kinds of diary products and fast food toppings as it was expected. The possible reason for absence of Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of the tested food were consequence of either good thermal treatment ( pasteurization or refrigeration) or absence of food samples with long shelf life( vacuum packaged food). Salmonella spp. was not the most frequently isolated pathogen compared to Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes as well as it could be expected related on data of official health statistics on reported cases of human salmonellosis. This pathogen was also isolated from one sample of fresh white cheese. This kind of food can be paced on the market as white cottage cheese from row, unpasterised milk. This pathogen could be a consequence of cross contamination due to poor hygienic practice. Yersinia enterocolitica was not isolated from any of the tested samples. We can speculate that we had relatively small number of the fresh pork meat samples and that our investigation was conducted during warm seasons, summer and autumn. Yersinia enterocolitica as a psychotropic microorganism better grows under lower environmental temperature, although some papers reported that it had been isolated during the same seasons. An additional reason could be that a culture method was applied for Yersinia enterocolitica isolation. Other papers also reported low rate of isolation of this pathogen by using culture method, compared to the PCR ones.
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Conclusion Obtained data indicated that food is an important route of transmission of Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Our pilot study indicated that Campylobacter spp. is the most frequent microbiological hazard identified in the tested samples of retailed food compared to the Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. In our investigation Yersinia enterocolitica was not detected in food, probable due to relatively small number of the pork meat and the applied culture method. Further, more specific, investigation is needed on order to provide data on population exposure to certain microbiological pathogen in food in Novi Sad.
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