SIR DAVID FERRIER MD, FRS
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Slide 1 :
David Ferrier MD., FRS., FRCP & West Riding Pauper Lunatic AsylumJMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Birth of Modern British Neurology 1870-1900 1873-78 Reports of the West Riding Asylum 1878 Brain 1886 Jan 14 Neurological Society of London, Hughlings Jackson 1st President. 1905 Neurological Society of the UK 1907 Neurological Section of the RSM 1933 Association of British Neurologists JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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David Ferrier: Beginnings born 13 Jan 1843 at Woodside, nr Aberdeen, son of David Ferrier, businessman. Educated - local grammar school entered Aberdeen University in 1859: graduated MA 1st class hons 1863 – classics, philosophy six months in Europe, studying psychology at Heidelberg. 1865 Edinburgh University, MB (hons) 1868. JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Ferrier: early career 1868-70 assistant to GP, Wm Edmund Image, in Bury St Edmunds. Prepared MD thesis on corpora quadrigemina: gold medal. 1870, lecturer physiology, Middlesex Hospital. 1871, demonstrator physiology King's College Hospital & National Hospital for Paralysed and Epileptic. 1872 Chair of forensic medicine @ King’s CH (Wm Rutherford: ‘Ferrier is a man possessed of much original powers for the pursuit of medical research’) 1873 West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum (Crichton-Browne) JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum 1818
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Ferrier: West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum (WRPLA) At invitation of James Crichton-Browne (Director, 1866 - 1876 ) Spring 1873, directed the laboratory : animal experiments and neuropathology. JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Cerebral localisation: background 1822-25 Gall & Spurzheim: brain the organ of the mind, i.e. multiple organs, each representing a form of mental or moral activity - Sur les functions de cerveau. (Phrenology demolished by Flourens) 1825 on clinical grounds, Lean Baptiste Bouillaud ? speech a function of anterior lobes. Supported by Auburtin, Paul Broca (Société d'Anthropologie on April 18, 1861), Dax, and others. 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Julius Eduard Hitzig (in Hitzig’s bedroom) :Galvanic stimulation of the cx ? contralateral limb movements. 1873-4 Ferrier's classic localisation of cerebral motor 'centres' from cortical stimulations & ablations: 'The localisation of functions in the brain', (Proc Royal Society 1874). JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Ferrier’s aims Jackson proposed : “discharges of the nervous tissue in cerebral convolutions were source of epileptic convulsions & normal movements”. Ferrier intended: “to put to experimental proof the views of Jackson on the pathology of Epilepsy, Chorea, and Hemiplegia, by imitating artificially the destroying and discharging lesions of disease”. JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Ferrier: WRPLA at work Over 1500 autopsies on pts with GPI. on: neuro-anatomy, physiology, pathology, clinical methods, therapeutics, & animal experiments. Treatments tried: electrical currents, NO2, ergot and opium. 1871-6, The West Riding Medical Reports published 62 of the 79 articles from the Asylum 1878, Crichton-Browne, Ferrier, Jackson, and Bucknill founded Brain. JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Ferrier: stimulation/ablation techniques Low intensity Faradic stimulation of cx in both animal species --> precise map of motor functions. The same areas, when lesioned, caused loss of the functions elicited by stimulation. High-intensity stimulation of motor cx caused repetitive movements in the neck, face and limbs resembling epilepsy in humans and animals, probably due to spread of the focus of stimulation: an interpretation identical to Jackson’s.
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Ferrier: Results With Faradic current across cx produced epileptiform attacks; elicited movements: localized twitches and slow purposive movements e.g. of the cat’s paw exactly as when a cat strikes a ball with its paw 1873 “proved localization of cerebral functions, the first to map the cerebral cx, from what had been an unknown area.”(Arch, RCP) Argued: voluntary motor centres were located on the cortex of the cerebral convolutions Inferred: conditions of disease in the brain could be effectively dealt with surgically
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Ferrier at Brown Animal Institute, London, June 1873 Conducted stimulation experiments on monkey brain and on lower animals Nov 1873, localized ablations in monkeys to corroborate his localization based on Faradic stimulation 5 Mar 1874, at Royal Society: Burdon-Sanderson delivered Ferrier’s lecture - The localisation of function in the brain. Findings & priority opposed by Eugene Dupuy, Burdon-Sanderson , Hitzig
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Fritsch & Hitzig 1870, Dog: motor responses to galvanic stimuli in face,hindlimbs, forelimbs
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Ferrier 1876, Faradic stimuli Monkey cx: motor functions (1-12 & a-d)
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Ferrier 1876 Human, ‘transposed’ from Monkey motor function (1-12 & a-d).
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Ferrier’s microscope 1870-80 (Univ Aberdeen)
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The Functions of the Brain, 1876, Ferrier dedicated: ‘To Dr. Hughlings Jackson, who from a clinical and pathological standpoint anticipated many of the more important results of recent experimental investigation into the functions of the cerebral hemispheres. This work is dedicated as a mark of the author's esteem and admiration.’ JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Ferrier: developments 1874 assistant physician both at King's College and the West London Hospitals. FRS 1876. FRCP 1877. Goulstonian Lectures on localization of cerebral disease 1878. Member of the Neurological Society, and a founder of BRAIN 1878. 1881 outpatients physician at King's, and at National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic. JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Consequences of Ferrier’s experiments 1881, Ferrier prosecuted by Frances Cobbe’s Victoria St. Soc’ under Cruelty to Animals Act 1876 @ Bow St. Court. Dismissed by Judge, Sir James Ingham QC Jackson present at farmer Henderson's tumour removed form R. motor cx by Rickman Godlee, Nov 25th, 1884. (Lancet 1884;2:1090-1.) JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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Ferrier: Honours In 1889 Professor of Neuropathology King's College, full physician 1890 Royal Medal of the Royal Society. 1894 President of the Neurological Society. 1902 Harveian Oration (RCP), & senior censor 1907. 1908 emeritus professor at King's College London. KBE in 1911. JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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David Ferrier: Publications Experimental researches in cerebral physiology and pathology'?J Anat Physiol. 1873; 8: 152-5. The Localisation of Cerebral Disease (Goulstonian Lectures, 1878) Croonian Lecture: Experiments on the Brain of Monkeys. Phil Trans Roy Soc (1875);165 The Functions of the Brain (London, 1876; 1886) ? Principles of Forensic Medicine, Wm Augustus & David Ferrier (London, 6th ed. 1888) ? Cerebral Localisation (London, 1890) ? The Heart and Nervous System (Harveian Oration, 1902) ? On Tabes Dorsalis (Lumleian Lectures, 1906) JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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David Ferrier Married Constance Waterlow in 1874 ? a son and a daughter. Ferrier died of pneumonia on 19 March 1928 at home York House, Kensington. An eponymous lecture was posthumously endowed at the Royal Society in 1929. At the Royal Society of Medicine a Ferrier memorial library was founded and endowed. JMS Pearce MD., FRCP
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