Schizophrenia and evolutionary psychopathology
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Schizophrenia and evolutionary psychopathology Oguz Kelemen 1, Szabolcs Kéri 2 1 Bács-Kiskun County Hosp., Department of Psychiatry, Hungary, Kecskemét 2 Semmelweis University, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hungary, Budapest e-mail: email@example.com
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Contents Basic evolutionary process Evolutionary psychology Evolutionary Psychiatry Anxiety disorders Mood disorders Overview of the evolutionary hypothesis of schizophrenia
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Base of Evolution: Slow changes Working with the big numbers Interested in species not in entity Happens in the Present - not oriented toward the future Evolution is not progression (faster, bigger, stronger) it is based on ADAPTATION
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Fitness Selection: based on -the capacity of survive & the Capacity of Gene Transmission /reproduction
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Fitness indicator Features to advertise good genes, good health, and/or psychological functioning. Andersson (1994) For human it could be: physical mental social economical features
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Humankind: selected under the pressure of the same evolutionary process like other species. (continuity) Physical as well as Mental/ Behavioural qualities are heritable so can be investigated in evolutionary context. Evolutionary Psychology
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CAUSALITY Proximal Ultimate Main Questions are: How does it works? Why does it work like that? Why does it exist? Main types of Answers are: Biochemical Historical/ Physiological Evolutionary Psychological- life events
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Ultimate Answers: Novelty - modern environment 2. Trade-off - Genes/traits have +/- trade-offs 3. Constraints 4. Gene impairment are too rare to shape defences 5. Defences that are confused with diseases NESSE 1999
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Anxiety has an obvious advantage in selection ALARM SYSTEM (-like pain) ANXIETY DISORDES
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Mood has a selective advantage, as: 1) motivation of the behaviour ( R Nesse) 2) communication – interpersonal effect (L Sloman) MOOD DISORDERS
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Mc Guire MT: Depression in evolutionary context (1997) Investigation could focus on: - Core features—adaptive traits? i.e: crying - as demanding help fatigue - energy saving - Clinical syndrome: Multiple model can be found, which raises the question: Whether Multiple depression exists?
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Ultimate causes: a) Depression = as an adaptive trait (in special life circumstances) Lewis 1936: eliciting help from others Price, Sloman 1976: response to the intolerability of low social status Engle 1980: depression conserves energy as a homeostatic regulatory process b) Trade off: creativity mainly apply to bipolar disorder
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Evolutionary Questions I How long does the disease of SCZ exist? Source can be: ancient writing descriptions are questionable SCZ has been observed in Australian Aboriginals Australian Aboriginals, about 60,000 years ago, separated from the rest of mankind.
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Evolutionary Questions II What is schizophrenia? or schizophrenias ? DSM: operative definition, based on consensus not sure it is the best approach in evolutionary investigations
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Genetic Disorder, but has survived Trade-off - possible advantage Ultimate Causes:
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Genetic Disorderwhich has not be able to be selected yet
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Yeo RA et al.: 1999: Developmental Instability Model SCZ is caused by the genetic inability to buffer the effect of deleterious environmental factors on the neurodevelopmental process Multiple Genes Individual mutations may be only mildly deleterious hence slowly removed from the population
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Shaner A, Miller G, Mintz J: 2004 Fitness indicator Model SCZ persist and involves many genetic loci because it is the unattractive, low-fitness extreme of a highly variable mental trait. = most susceptibility alleles for SCZ will be evolutionary transient, lineage-specific mutations that reduce general fitness
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Trade-off Disadvantage BUT Advantage for Patient SCZ- Disease for the family for the species / mankind
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Advantage for the Patient Brown JS: 2003 higher resistance against some viral infections (mainly flavivirus) Oken RJ, Schulzer M: 1999 strong negative association between schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis
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Advantage for the relatives 1) Biological: retrospective studies Erlenmeyer-Kimling L: 1968 Female children of parents with SCZ enjoyed increased survival. Male children did not demonstrate any advantage. Carter M and Watts CAH: 1971 Diminished incidence of virus infections among relatives of patients with SCZ.
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2) Psychological advantage Cesare Lombroso: Genius is closely linked to Madness ( Genio e Follia. Torino, Italy, Bocca, 1894 ) Andreasen NC 1987: Creativity and mental illness Karlsson JL.1974: SCZ and Creativity
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Advantage for Mankind – Brain development
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Crow TJ: 1995, 2000 Language- Brain Asymmetry Hypothesis States single gene impairment: which is located in a sex-specific region of homology on both X and Y chromosomes This gene controls the cerebral/ hemispherial asymmetry (especially in planum temporale) This is in connection with verbal ability capacity for language, correlate of the „capacity” of psychosis
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Burns J: 2006: Social Brain Hypothesis Functional imaging identifies: fronto-temporal and fronto-parietal cortical networks as comprising the social brain. -SCZ display abnormalities in a wide range of social cognition tasks SCZ represents a costly by-product of social brain evolution in Homo sapiens
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Randall PL: 1998 SCZ - Misconnection Hypothesis Postnatal brain growth is enormous Central process: progressive myelination Trade-off: Vulnerability to environmental factors during early brain development Impairment of the myelination: Interhemispherial = autism /dyslexia Intrahemispherial (fronto-temporális) = SCZ
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Human as a Group-species SCZ, Group-splitting, Shamanism
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Stevens A and Price J: 2000 Group-splitting hypothesis Ancient, proliferating tribal communities must eventually split to maintain optimum numbers. Schizotypal traits may be useful to split the oversized group and to seed new cultures.
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Polimeni J and Reiss J: 2002 Similarities between: Religious-Shamanism-SCZ -religious rituals (in hunting and gathering societies: shamanism) are universally observed in all cultures -this is likely both genetically rooted and critical to humankind’s survival Schizophrenia, psychotic capacity could have enhanced a shaman’s ability to conduct religious based rituals Human is a kind of Superorganism: Similar to sterile worker bees, that continue to proliferate because they must somehow be crucial to the colony’s survival- schizophrenia symptoms for shamans may reflect an ancient form of behavioural specialization for hunting and gathering tribes.
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