Specialized Business Information Systems


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1 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 1 Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 7
2 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 2 The Nature of Intelligence Learn from experience & apply the knowledge Deep Blue improves its performance by playing with humans Handle complex situations Traffic problem in Istanbul Solve problems when important information is missing Based on available information Determine what is important Choose which facts to use to compute the solution
3 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 3 The Nature of Intelligence React quickly and correctly to new situations Requires understanding the new situation Understand visual images Requires perception Process and manipulate symbols Computers are better at dealing with numbers Be creative and imaginative Use heuristics Rules of thumb from experience
4 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 4 A comparison of Natural and Artificial Intelligence
5 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 5 A Conceptual Model of Artificial Intelligence
6 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 6 What is an Expert System? Hardware and software that contain knowledge and manipulate knowledge by inferences Mycin (Shortliffe 1976): Expert system for medicine Program for advising physicians on treating bacterial infections Question and answer dialogues with user Accounts for uncertainties Explains its reasoning
7 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 7 Characteristics of an Expert System Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions Why recommend a certain medicine? Can display “intelligent” behavior Can draw conclusions from complex relationships A patient is diagnosed with two diseases, The cures for the diseases may have conflicts Can provide portable knowledge Capture knowledge in one’s brain Can deal with uncertainty A patient is diagnose without running all the tests
8 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 8 Characteristics of an Expert System Not widely used or tested Limited to relatively narrow problems Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge Expert systems should talk to each other Cannot refine its own knowledge Should be able to keep a consistent knowledgebase Should have a way to gain new knowledge May have high development costs Raise legal and ethical concerns
9 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 9 When to Use Expert Systems High payoff Preserve scarce expertise Provide more consistency than humans Faster solutions than humans Training expertise
10 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 10 Components of an Expert System
11 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 11 The Relationships Among Data, Information, and Knowledge
12 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 12 Rules for a Credit Application
13 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 13 The Knowledge Acquisition Facility
14 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 14 Knowledge Base Assembling human experts Combine knowledge from several experts Disagree on many items The use of fuzzy logic For relations that are not precise Is a 50-year old man old? Help computers deal with imprecise knowledge Ex: Washing machines; Auto-focus cameras
15 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 15 Knowledge Base The use of rules Rule: Conditional statement (if … then) If the condition matches, the action fires More rules generally mean more precision The use of cases Template of problems or situations To find the solution of a new case, find similar old cases and apply result
16 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 16 Inference Engine (1) Use information and relations to derive new facts to solve problems or predict possible outcomes Main reasoning component Find the right facts, apply the right relations, etc. Ex: Facts: male(Ali), female(Oya) Relations: father(X, Y) => male(X) The engine can conclude that Oya cannot be a father.
17 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 17 Inference Engine (2) Backward chaining You start with conclusions You want to find out if you can get to the conclusion from your facts Forward chaining You start with facts and try to reach conclusions More expensive since it can generate many conclusions
18 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 18 Other Components Explanation Facility Enables the expert system to explain its reasoning Helps the user to judge the expert system Knowledge Acquisition Facility Get and update knowledge Provide a way to capture and store knowledge Can be semi-automated User Interface Help users interact with the system Improve usability
19 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 19 Expert Systems Development
20 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 20 Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems
21 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 21 Domain Expert Recognize the real problem Develop a general framework for problem solving Formulate theories about the situation Develop and use general rules to solve a problem Know when to break the rules or general principles Solve problems quickly and efficiently
22 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 22 Other participants Knowledge Engineer Works in design and implementation of the expert system Has considerable information about expert systems Knowledge User End user who will benefit from the system No need to know anything about expert systems Can help in testing
23 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 23 Expert Systems Development Alternatives
24 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 24 Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence Credit granting and loan analysis Stock Picking Catching cheats and terrorists NORA (Non-obvious Relationship Awareness) Budgeting
25 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 25 Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence Games: Proverb solves crossword puzzles Writing: Evaluate and rate writings Information management and retrieval Virus detection Learns the actions of a virus Hospitals and medical facilities
26 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 26 Virtual Reality Enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment Immersive virtual reality - user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment
27 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 27 Interface Devices Head mounted display (HMD) Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM) CAVE
28 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 28 The BOOM, a Head-Coupled Display Device
29 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 29 Viewing the Detroit Midfield Terminal in an Immersive CAVE System
30 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 30 Useful Applications Medicine – used to link stroke patients to physical therapists Education and training – used by military for aircraft maintenance Entertainment Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Real Estate Marketing and Tourism Used to increase real estate sales Virtual reality tour of the White House
31 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 31 Segway
32 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 32 Robotics Mechanical or computer devices that can move autonomously Manufacturers use robots to assemble or paint products Asimo in Istanbul: Shake hands, dance Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs): Identify and destroy targets without human intervention
33 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 33 Vision Systems Capture, store, manipulate visual images Fingerprint analysis: Store a database of fingerprints and information about the owners. Match a fingerprint with an existing entry in the database Mostly recognize black and white
34 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 34 Natural Language Processing Understand and react to statements in natural language Three levels of understanding Commands Discrete Continuous Talk to a computer; computer converts languages to commands understandable by computers
35 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 35 Learning Systems Change its behavior over time Computer takes an action User gives feedback Based on the feedback, computer modifies its action First train the system; then try on test data Amazon.com learns user models as users browse and buy goods
36 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 36 Summary Artificial intelligence - used to describe computers with ability to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain Intelligent behavior - includes the ability to learn from experience Expert systems - can explain their reasoning (or suggested decisions) and display intelligent behavior Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment Special-purpose systems - assist organizations and individuals in new and exciting ways
37 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 37 Principles and Learning Objectives Artificial intelligence systems form a broad and diverse set of systems that can replicate human decision making for certain types of well-defined problems. Define the term artificial intelligence and state the objective of developing artificial intelligence systems. List the characteristics of intelligent behavior and compare the performance of natural and artificial intelligence systems for each of these characteristics. Identify the major components of the artificial intelligence field and provide one example of each type of system.
38 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 38 Principles and Learning Objectives Expert systems can enable a novice to perform at the level of an expert but must be developed and maintained very carefully. List the characteristics and basic components of expert systems. Outline and briefly explain the steps for developing an expert system. Identify the benefits associated with the use of expert systems.
39 : Fundamentals of Information Systems, Second Edition 39 Principles and Learning Objectives Virtual reality systems have the potential to reshape the interface between people and information technology by offering new ways to communicate information creatively. Define the term virtual reality and provide three examples of virtual reality applications. Special-purpose systems can help organizations and individuals achieve their goals. Discuss examples of special-purpose systems for organizational and individual use.

 

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