The Effects of Imagery Perspective as a Function of Skill Level on Lower and Upper Alpha Activities
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Slide 1 :
The Effects of Imagery Perspective as a Function of Skill Level on Lower and Upper Alpha Activities Cremades, J. Gualberto, Ed.D., Ph.D. Barry University, Miami Shores, FL
Slide 2 :
Review of Literature Imagery is one strategy being used by athletes to enhance their performance. In previous research studying imagery, Lang’s (1979) Information-Processing Theory states two types of propositions: stimulus propositions (SP) and response propositions (RP). The beneficial use of imagery scripts emphasizing these propositions may depend on the skill level of the performer.
Slide 3 :
Review of Literature – cont. Imagery research has used EEG to study differences in alpha waveband (8-13 Hz) activity during imagery. The reduction of alpha activity (alpha blocking) has been associated with sensory stimulation or mental activity (Ray, 1990). Research has shown that imagery involves mental activity (Ray & Cole, 1985; Shaw, 1992).
Slide 4 :
Review of Literature – cont. Hemispheric lateralization states that: the left-hemisphere is more involved in the processing of verbal material, the right hemisphere is more involved in the processing of visuospatial material.
Slide 5 :
Review of Literature – cont. The temporal lobes are associated with audition, visual recognition, and aspects of language such as comprehension and syntax. The parietal cortex contains the somatosensory projection fields and areas related to visual processing. The occipital lobes are associated with vision.
Slide 6 :
Purpose of the Study To investigate: differences in lower (8-10 Hz) and upper (11-13 Hz) alpha activities during imagery emphasizing SP and RP. differences in lower and upper alpha activity between experts and novices during imagery performance. hemispheric differences in lower and upper alpha activity.
Slide 7 :
Methods Right-handed male subjects were either “experts” (n=11) or “novices” (n=11) depending on past experience on a golf-putting task. The Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) (Hall & Pongrac, 1983) was used to assess each subject’s ability to imagine movement. Lower and upper alpha activities from T4, T3, P4, P3, O2, O3 were recorded during the imaged forwardswing and the complete movement of the putt.
Slide 8 :
Methods – cont. After subsequent Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of results, mean lower and upper alpha power values were entered into separate repeated measures mixed model designs. Each with a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 mixed model design (skill level x imagery perspective x hemisphere x swing phase) for each pair of active electrodes (parietal, temporal, and occipital).
Slide 9 :
Results – cont. Significant main effects (p<.05): in imagery perspective at all three sites in the lower alpha band. in skill level at the occipital sites in the lower alpha band.
Slide 10 :
Results – cont. Significant interaction effects (p<.05): imagery perspective by hemisphere was found in the upper alpha band at the parietal site. imagery perspective by skill level was found in the lower alpha band at the occipital site and in the upper alpha band at the parietal site.
Slide 11 :
Mean upper alpha power values (11-13 Hz) for the hemisphere by skill level interaction effect at the parietal site
Slide 12 :
Mean lower alpha power values (8-10 Hz) for the imagery perspective by skill level interaction effect at the occipital site.
Slide 13 :
Discussion Greater arousal, attention, and effort were required by subjects when visualizing from an internal perspective (i.e., feeling the movement). Novice subjects exerted more effort than experts to process information in the visual cortex. Novices exerted more effort and processed more information in encoding the verbal stimulus when feeling the movement.
Slide 14 :
Discussion – cont. The results do not support the traditional view of hemispheric lateralization. In addition to the imagery task, there was a verbal component (i.e., rehearsing imagery instructions). Experts needed less processing of information to encode the verbal stimulus of imagery instructions in the left hemisphere as opposed to novice subjects.
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