Theories of Child Psychology


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really helpful to know actually about the child psychology..........thanxs a lot
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1 : Theories of child psychology Dr.M.Ganesh,MDS(Pediatric Dentistry)
2 : WHY PSYCHOLOGY??? Psychological development is a dynamic process Governed by genetic, familial, cultural, interpersonal & interpsychic factors Pedodontist- “Parent Surrogate” Need to understand psychological development to relate & guide effectively
3 : Definitions Psychology: Science dealing with human nature, function & phenomenon of his soul & mind in the main Child psychology: Science that deals with the mental power or an interaction between the conscious & subconscious element in a child
4 : Definitions… Emotions: An effective state of consciousness in which joy, sorrow, fear, hatred or the likes are expressed
5 : Importance of child psychology Better understanding of the child Know problems of psychological origin Deliver dental service in a meaningful manner Establish effective communication
6 : Importance of child psychology Gain confidence of child & parents Better teaching of primary & preventive care Effective treatment planning and execution Provide a comfortable environment
7 : Classification Psychodynamic theories: Psychosexual theory- Sigmund Freud (1905) Cognitive development theory- Jean Piaget (1952) Psychosocial theory- Eric Erickson (1963) Behavioral theories: Classical conditioning – Pavlov (1927) Operant conditioning – Skinner (1938) Hierarchy of needs – Masler (1954) Social Learning theory – Bandura (1963)
8 : Psychosexual/Psychodynamic Theory Attempts to explain the personality & psychological disorders in an individual by understanding the mind at its different level,its motivation & conflicts
9 : Sigmund Freud Born: May 6, 1856 Died: September 23, 1939 Field: Psychoanalysis Institution Known for: Founding psychoanalysis Notable Prizes: Goethe Prize
10 : Freudian therapy The goal was to bring to consciousness repressed thoughts and feelings Freud's early work with psychoanalysis can be linked to Joseph Breuer, he credits Breuer with the discovery of the psychoanalytical method
11 : Mind AS AN ICEBERG… Topographical model: Consists of conscious, preconscious & subconscious mind Human mind is like an iceberg
12 : Only 10% of an iceberg is visible (conscious) whereas the other 90% is beneath (unconscious)
13 : Conscious mind The conscious mind is where we are paying attention at the moment… Only our current thinking processes and objects of attention Constitutes a very large part of our current awareness
14 : Preconscious mind Ordinary memory & knowledge Those things of which we are aware, but where we are not paying attention Deliberately bring them into the conscious mind by focusing
15 : Unconscious/Subconscious mind The process and content are out of direct reach of the conscious mind. Thinks and acts independently Dump box for urges, feelings and ideas  Exert influence on our actions and our conscious awareness
16 : Structural mind An individual’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are the result of the interaction of the id, the ego and the superego
17 : PSYCHIC TRIAD
18 : ID Born with it Important part of our personality As newborns, it allows us to get our basic needs met Wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation
19 : Id Primitive instinctive component of mind Reservoir of instinctual drives Amoral & incapable of judgment Not concerned with reality “Pleasure principle”
20 : Ego The rational part of the mind Develops around 2- 6 months of age To be reasonable and bear the long-term consequences in mind Uses secondary processes (perception, recognition, judgment and memory) “Reality principle”
21 : Super ego Prohibition from parents & society Moral & ethical component of mind “Perfection principle”
22 : In a healthy person the ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the needs of the id, not upset the superego, and still take into consideration the reality of every situation
23 :
24 : Ego defense mechanisms These are tactics which the Ego develops to help deal with the ID and the Super Ego All Defense Mechanisms share two common properties : - They often appear unconsciously. - They tend to distort, transform, or otherwise falsify reality
25 : EGO DEFENCES When not in control over ID DEFENCES anxiety Resources mobilized to overcome anxiety The mental strategy to prevent open expression Of ID
26 : Ego defenses Rationalization: Giving excuses for shortcomings and thereby avoiding self-condemnation, disappointments, or criticism by others
27 : Projection: Attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts, feelings, impulses to others
28 : Displacement: redirecting our impulses (often anger) from the real target (because that is too dangerous) to a safer but innocent person
29 : Reaction formation: reversal of our feelings, overacting in the opposite way to the fear
30 : Denial: claiming/believing that what is true to be actually false
31 : Regression: Giving up of mature problem solving methods in favor of child like approaches to fixing problems
32 : Sublimation: transforming unacceptable needs into acceptable ambitions and actions
33 : Psychosexual Stages of Development “ what we do and why we do it, who we are and how we became this way are all related to our sexual drive” At each stage, different areas of the child's body become the focus of his pleasure and the dominant source of sexual arousal
34 : Failures to set satisfying needs/goals at any stages of psychosexual development leads to the individual partially fixed at these levels which are evident by various pathologic traits and in adulthood showing these signs in various forms
35 : Psychosexual stages: Freud outlined six stages of manifestations of the sexual drive: Oral Anal Urethral Phallic Latency & Genital
36 : Oral Stage (0 - 1.5 yrs ) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Mouth Gratifying Activities: eating, sucking, gumming, biting & swallowing The mother's breast not only is the source of food & drink, but also represents her love Warm, trusting & affectionate relationship
37 : Oral fixation Both insufficient and forceful feeding can result in fixation in this stage Symptoms of Oral Fixation: Smoking Constant chewing on gum, pens, pencils, etc. Nail biting Overeating, Drinking Sarcasm ("the biting personality") and verbal hostility Pessimism, attention seeking behavior Aggressive, dominant
38 : DENTAL APPLICATIONS
39 : Anal Stage (1.5 – 3 yrs) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Anus Gratifying Activities: Bowel movement and the withholding of such movement Toilet training Discover their own ability to control Autonomy, Sense of shame Period of striving of independence
40 : Anal Fixation Anal-Expulsive Personality: If the parents are too lenient the child will derive pleasure and success from the expulsion Are excessively sloppy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant Anal-Retentive Personality: If a child receives excessive pressure and punishment will experience anxiety over bowel movements Very careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous
41 : DENTAL APPLICATIONS
42 : URETHRAL STAGE (3-4 yrs) Transition between anal & phallic Derives pleasure by exercising control over urinary sphincter Objectives similar to anal stage Shame, competitiveness & ambition
43 : DENTAL APPLICATIONS
44 : Phallic Stage(4-5 yrs) Probably the most challenging stage in a person's psychosexual development "Oedipus Complex" "Electra Complex” Castration Anxiety Penis envy Consolidation of ego Differentiating between sexes
45 : Success or failure to resolve the conflict, he or she will have learnt to control their envy and hostility and begin to identify with and model the parent of their own sex
46 : DENTAL APPLICATIONS
47 : Latency Stage(6-12y) Sexual feelings are suppressed to allow children to focus their energy on other aspects of life Is a time of learning, adjusting to the social environment outside of home, absorbing the culture, forming beliefs and values
48 : LATENCY PHASE…. Resolution of any defects Maturation of ego Greater control over instincts Consolidation of sex roles Mastery over skills Phase ends in puberty
49 : DENTAL APPLICATIONS
50 : Genital Stage (puberty onwards) Erogenous Zone in Focus: Genital Gratifying Activities: heterosexual relationships Interaction with the Environment: Marked by a renewed sexual interest and desire, and the pursuit of relationships, Acceptance of adult role, Social expectations & values, mature personality
51 : Fixation If people experience difficulties at this stage, and many people do, the damage was done in earlier oral, anal, and phallic stages Unresolved traits from previous phases seen in a modified form
52 : DENTAL APPLICATIONS
53 : WHAT IS GOOD ABOUT THIS THEORY? One of the first theories proposed in psychology Stage wise classification help us to relate to patients well Covers the psychological development of the entire lifespan Role of biology and society have been highlighted Concept of ego defenses was very practical
54 : THE NOT SO GOOD ABOUT THIS THEORY Based only on the sexual drive Based on studies conducted on few patients Complicated and not very practically applicable Has been a source of constant criticism and debate (sexuality, oedipus complex, unconscious) Most of the work based on psychological patients
55 : Any Questions ???

 

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