Tuberculosis Prevention Control


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Pradeep Pithadia    on Sep 26, 2012 Says :

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1 : Tuberculosis: Prevention and Control Dr Prabir Ranjan Moharana MD(Community Medicine),PGDHHM.
2 : Disease Burden 9.4 million new tuberculosis cases(Incidence rate-139 cases per 100,000 population) The 22 high burden countries account for 80% of all estimated cases world wide. India (1.98 million), China (1.3 million), South Africa (0.47 million), Nigeria (0.45 million) and Indonesia (0.43million). India and China alone account for an estimated 35% of TB cases worldwide. 1.7 million(3.2%) tuberculosis deaths in 2009. Kills more adults & 80% of died from TB belong to age group(15-49). 33% of global population are infected asymptomatically with Tuberculosis Bacilli and 5-10% of them will develop clinical disease.
3 : Disease Burden(India) 21% of global incidences of new TB cases occur in India and India tops the list of 22 High Burden Countries (HBC) in the world followed by China. 1.98 million develop TB and 0.276 million die every year. Prevalence 185 per lakh(2009) from 312(2004) and568 per lakh(1990) Incidence 168 per lakh(2009) in India. 24 per lakh population(2009) from 42 lakh population(1990).
4 : Disease Burden Annual Risk of Infection : 1.5% in India(15 million) 40% of Indian population are infected with TB. Untreated pulmonary TB patients infects 10-15 persons every year. 2 Indians die in every 3 minutes from TB. Kills more women of 15-49 age group.
5 : Disease Burden Kills more women than all causes of maternal mortality combined. Create more orphans than any other infectious disease. Causes of one third of female infertility in India. More than 1,00,000 women are abandoned by their families. One-fifth of children of TB patients leave school/take up employment to support family. Untreated pulmonary TB patients infects 10-15 persons every year. Kills more women of 15-49 age group.
6 : Natural History of Tuberculosis: Agent Rod-shaped, non motile, non capsulated, non-spore-forming, thin aerobic bacterium measuring 0.5 µm by 3 µm. Mycobacteria neutral on Gram's staining. However, once stained, the bacilli cannot be decolorized by acid alcohol; this characteristic justifies their classification as acid-fast bacilli (AFB).
7 : AFB in sputum under microscope
8 : Natural History of Tuberculosis: Agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis( Human and Bovine strain) Atypical Mycobacteria i. Photochromogen: M.kansasii,M.marinum. ii. Scotochromogen: M.scrofulaceum,M.gordonae iii. Non-photochromogen: M.avium,M.intracellulare iv. Rapid Growers: M.fortuitum
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