Two dimensional gait analysis based on color detection and image processing
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on Jul 26, 2012 Says :
VERY INFORMATIVE AND NO NED OF 3D EXPENSIVE METHODS SOME MORE PHOTOGRAPHS AND A VIDEO WILL BE WELCOMED
on Jul 21, 2012 Says :
brilliant ppt on walking aids
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Visual gait analysis Walk minimum 8m with different speed. It is simplest gait analysis but has serious limitations 1- transitory, no permanent record 2- eye can not observe high speed events 3- possible to observe the motion not the force 4- depend on the skills of the observer.
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The best viewpoint for observation of gait abnormality Side view : anterior and posterior trunk bending, increased lumbar lordosis, steppage, excessive knee flexion and extension, vaulting, insufficient push off and dorsiflexion control . Front and behind view : circumduction, hip hiking, vaulting, abnormal foot contact , hip rotation and walking base
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Anterior trunk bending Posterior trunk bending
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Videotape examinations Overcome two of the visual limitations, 1- transitory, no permanent record 2- eye can not observe high speed events And confer the following advantages 3- reduce the number of walk the subjects need to do 4- show subjects how they are walking 5- used to teach visual gait analysis to someone else
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General gait parameters Cadence : no of steps/known period time. 10-15 sec is enough time Stride length by direct measurement (foot print) or indirect from velocity and cadence Step length, walking base, toe out angle, foot contact pattern. Foot print ( water , talcum powder, and felt adhesive pads soaked in different colored dye and a stripe of paper )
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Velocity : distance/time .( 6*10 m ) are enough The subject should be to walk at their natural speed and their stride before measurements Foot switches : to record timing of gait Electrogoniometer
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Electromyography Force platform : with size 45X60cm 3D motion analysis system email@example.com
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Walking aids Waling aids modify the gait pattern Reduce pain in painful joint Increased the functions Gait training (underwater, between parallel bars, use assistive devices )
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Canes Canes are the means of forces transmitted to ground by the wrist and hand They are used for the following purposes 1- to improve stability 2- to generate moment (on the opposed side ) 3- to take part of the load from the leg
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Types of canes Straight cane Tripod canes Tetrapod canes L shape handle U shape handle Angular shaped handle Adjustable in height
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Crutches They differ from canes, because they able to transmit significant force in the horizontal plane Types of crutches Axillary crutches, may add plateform Forearm crutches or elbow crutches Ortho crutches
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Walkers (rollators) The most stable walking aids Types 1- regular walkers 2- adjustable walkers 3- folded walker 4- rolling walker 5- walker with plateform for forearm support 6- reciprocal walker
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Gait pattern with walking aids Gait with single aid Three point swing through gait Three point swing to gait (the feet are advanced by a much shorter distance and placed behind the level of crutches) Four point gait Three point gait Two point gait
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Planning for gait training 1- safety measures Gait belt Dry surface Slippers or shoes Therapist beside the affect side Turning around the good leg
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2- point to start with According to static and dynamic balance, starts from easy to hardest Underwater Use parallel bars Walker Crutches Canes Independent
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3- Weight bearing status NWB TTWB PWB WBAT FWB 4- Mental status: good level of awareness and orientation to understand the instructions
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5- Preparing for the treatment area Usage mirror Draw line on the floor in case of dynamic balance Decide the distance of walking The level of the surface
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Amputee gait The mechanical coupling between the stump and the prosthetic limb can not be good as in the normal because 1- the lever arm between the hip and the socket is small 2- the relative motion between the stump and the socket 3- uncomfortable socket prevent applying large forces on the prosthetic limb
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Up and down stairs Up with good leg first and down with the affected one With cane , Up with good leg first then cane then the affected one and vise versa going down The same with the crutches
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