anatomy of the female reproductive system

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1 : anatomy of the female reproductive system Zhang Xiaofei
2 : This information is important because it will raise your level of awareness and understanding about your physical body.
3 : Pelvis Pelvic floor External genitalia Internal genitalia Introduction Vessel and nerve and lymph Adjacent organs
4 : pelvis
5 :
6 : Brief description The bony pelvis or pelvic skeleton is the section between the legs and the torso that connects the lumbar part of the spine (backbone) to the thigh bones.
7 : In adults, it is mainly constructed of two hip bones, one on the right and one on the left of the body These sections are fused together during puberty, meaning in childhood they are separate bones.
8 : The two hip bones are made up of 3 sections, the Ilium, Ischium and Pubis.
9 : Bony pelvis ilium coccyx sacrum pubis ischium
10 : Joints Sacro-iliac joint ???? Sacro-coccygeal joint Symphysis pubica
11 : Joints ----pubic symphysis The two hip bones are joined anteriorly at the pubic symphysis a fibrous cartilage covered by a hyaline cartilage the interpubic disk, within which a non-synovial cavity might be present
12 : Joints ----sacriliac jlints formed between the auricular surfaces of the sacrum and the two hip bones. are amphiarthroses, almost immobile joints enclosed by very taut joint capsules
13 : Sacrococcygeal symphysis The joint between the sacrum and the coccyx
14 : Ligaments
15 : Sacrospinous ligament ???? Extend from the lateral border of the sacrum and coccyx to the spine of the ischium
16 : Sacrotuberous ligament ????? Extend from the posterior aspect of the lower 3 sacral vertebrae to the ischial tuberosity
17 : Ture pelvis Bony birth canal the Pelvic inlet, the pelvic out let and the pelvic cavity
18 : Functions 1 bear the weight of the upper body when sitting and standing; transfer that weight from the axial skeleton to the lower appendicular skeleton when standing and walking
19 : provide attachments for and withstand the forces of the powerful muscles of locomotion and posture Compared to the shoulder girdle, the pelvic girdle is thus strong and rigid
20 : Function 2 contain and protect the pelvic and abdominopelvic viscera provide attachment for external reproductive organs and associated muscles and membranes
21 : Types of pelvis The gynecoid type (????) The platypelloid type (?????) The anthropoid type (??????) The android type (????)
22 : Types of pelvis The gynecoid type (????) round, slightly ovoid or elliptical inlet. adequate sacrosciatic notch. wide interspinous diameters(=10cm). 52%-58.9%
23 :
24 : The gynecoid type round, slightly ovoid or elliptical inlet. adequate sacrosciatic notch. wide interspinous diameters(=10cm). 52%-58.9%
25 : The platypelloid type distinct oval inlet. very wide subpubic arch 23.2%-29%
26 : The anthropoid type long, narrow, oval inlet extended and narrow anterior and posterior segment wide sacrosciatic notch long , narrow sacrum Straight side walls
27 : The android type A wedge-shaped inlet A narrow forepelvis A flat posterior segment A narrow sacrosciatic notch Side walls converge
28 : Pelvic floor
29 : The tissues closing down the pelvic outlet composed of several overlapping sheets of muscles and connective tissues
30 : functions close the pelvic and abdominal cavities and bear the load of the visceral organs control the openings of the rectum and urogenital organs that pierce the pelvic floor and make it weaker
31 : Posterior part (urogenital triangle) urethra and vagina pass through Anterior part (anal triangle) rectum pass through
32 : Tissues Outer layer Bulbocavernosus muscle (?????) Ischiocavernosus muscle (??????) Superficial transverse perineal muscle (?????) External anal sphincter (??????
33 : mid layer urogenital diaphragm ????? consists mainly of the deep transvers perinel reinforced posteriorly by the superficial transvere perineal
34 : Inner layer (pelvic diaphragm ??)
35 : the main support of the pelvic floor formed by the levator ani and coccygenus muscles and covering fasciae. Levator ani: pubococcygenus (???), iliococcygenus (???), puborectalis (???)
36 : Perineum general conception: the tissues closing down the pelvic outlet Clinical conception: the tissues between vagina and anus.
37 : It supports and surrounds the lower parts of the urinary and digestive tracts The perinium contains an abundance of nerve endings that make it sensitive to touch An episiotomy is an incision of the perinium used during childbirth for widening the vaginal opening
38 : External genitalia
39 : External genitalia mons pubis ?? Labium majus ??? Clitotis ?? Labium minus ??? Urethral orifice ??? Vaginal orifice ??? Vaginal vestibule ???? Fossa navicularis ??? Perineal body ??? Anus ??
40 : Labia majora The venous drainage is extensive and forms a plexus with numerous anastomoses. Vulva hematoma
41 : Vaginal vestibule Bordered by the labia minora laterally, by the frenulum labiorum pudendal (????) posteriorly, by the urethra and clitoris anteriorly, by the hymenal ring inferiorly.
42 : Internal genitalia
43 :
44 : Vagina The vagina connects the cervix to the external genitals It is located between the bladder and rectum strong canal of muscle (7.5cm)
45 : vaginal fornix the circular cul-de-sac formed around the cervix 4 regions: the anterior fornix, the posterior fornix and 2 lateral fornices.
46 : Cervix The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina The cervical opening to the vagina is small
47 : This acts as a safety precaution against foreign bodies entering the uterus During childbirth, the cervix dilates to accommodate the passage of the fetus This dilation is a sign that labor has begun
48 : External os: opening of endocervical canal to ectocervix Internal os: indistinct upper limit of endocervical canal
49 : Uterus Commonly referred to as the womb A pear shaped organ about the size of a clenched fist
50 : It is made up of the endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium Consists of blood-enriched tissue that sloughs off each month during menstrual cycle
51 : Isthmus uteri connect the body to cervix, 1cm (non-pregnancy) here the uterine muscle is narrower and thinner.
52 : Uterus Ligaments Broad ligament Round ligament Cardinal ligament Utero-sacral ligament
53 : Broad ligment is the wide fold of peritoneum that connects the sides of the uterus to the walls and floor of the pelvis. serves as a mesentery for the uterus, ovaries, and the uterine tubes. It helps in maintaining the uterus in its position
54 : Round ligment originates at the uterine horns, in the parametrium. It leaves the pelvis via the deep inguinal ring, passes through the inguinal canal and continues on to the labia majora where its fibers spread and mix with the tissue of the mons pubis Function :maintenance of the anteversion of the uterus
55 : Cardinal ligament It is located at the base of the broad ligament of the uterus. Importantly, it contains the uterine artery and uterine vein. It provides support to the uterus
56 : Utero-sacral ligament passes along the lateral wall of the pelvis from the uterine cervix to the sacrum serves to support the uterus and hold it in place
57 : Fallopian tubes Serve as a pathway for the ovum to the uterus Are the site of fertilization by the male sperm Often referred to as the oviducts or uterine tubes
58 : Fallopian tubes Interstitial portion: Isthmic portion: narrow Ampulla: wide and tortuous Fimbria: funnel-shaped mouth
59 : Ovary The female gonads or sex glands They develop and expel an ovum each month
60 : Paired organ, elliptic The suspensory ligament of the ovary: The ovarian ligament
61 : Covered by cuboid or low columnar epithelium Consist of a cortex and a medulla Cortex: oocytes in various stages of maturity. Medulla: fibers, smooth muscle cells, blood vessel, nerves.
62 : Vessel and nerve and lymph
63 : Blood vessel The ovarian artery The uterine artery Vaginal artery Internal pudendal atery
64 : ovarian artery Orginated as branches of the abdominal aorta, (left: left renal artery) Turn over the common iliac artery and ureter, descend into the pelvis. Enter into ovary through the mesovarium
65 : The uterine artery a terminal branch of the hypogastric artery Cross the ureter near the cervix (2cm)
66 : The uterine artery Ascend along the lateral border of the uterus uterine body branch and cervix-vagina branch
67 : Vaginal artery The chief blood supply to the vagina is through the vaginal branch of the uterine artery.
68 : Internal pudendal atery is the terminal branch of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery providing blood to the external genitalia
69 : Lymph External genitalia lymph Pelvic lymph
70 : External genitalia superfical inguinal gland (???????) deep inguinal gland (???????)
71 : Pelvic lymph iliac lymph Anterior Sacral lymph Lumbar lymph: abdominal aorta
72 : Pelvic lymph iliac lymph common iliac internal iliac external iliac
73 : Anterior Sacral lymph
74 : Lumbar lymph: abdominal aorta
75 : Adjacent organs
76 : Urethra Urinary bladder Ureter Rectum Appendix
77 : urethra
78 : Answer the questions How many types of pelvis are there? What are they? What is perineum? How many ligaments of uterus are there? What are they?
79 : Thank you!


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