congenital anomalies of foot
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on Aug 16, 2012 Says :
very informative PPT on fetal malformations.
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INTRODUCTION Positional deformations: abnormalities mechanically produced by alterations of the normal fetal environment, which restrict fetal movement and/or cause significant fetal compression. Deformations of the extremities occur frequently because fetal movement is required for normal musculoskeletal development.
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Phimosis Narrowing or stenosis of preputial opening of foreskin. (in severe cases: circumcision or vertical division and transverse, suturing of foreskin)
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Hydrocele Fluid in scrotum. Therapeutic management is surgical repair indicated if spontaneous resolution not accomplished in 1 year.
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Inguinal hernia: Protrusion of abdominal contents through inguinal canal into the scrotum. Therapeutic management includes: detected as painless inguinal swelling of variable size surgical closure of inguinal defect.
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Polycystic kidney: The infant has enlarged kidneys filled with cysts at birth If the condition is bilateral, the infant will not pass urine but if it is unilateral the condition may be missed until later in life.
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Wilm’s Tumor (Embryoma) It is a malignant tumor of the kidney that arises from an embryonic structure present in the child before birth; The tumor is felt as an abdominal mass. It is important that the necessary for diagnosis because handling appears to increase the danger of metastasis.
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Skeletal defects affecting the nervous system: Spina Bifida Spina Bifida Occulta Meningocele Meningomyelocele Hydrocephalus
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Spina Bifida It is a defective closure of the vertebral column. It is more common in the lumbo sacral region. It has varying degree of tissue protrusion through the bony cleft.
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Spina Bifida Occulta Usually the 5th lumber and 1st sacral vertebrae are affected with no protrusion of interspinal contents the spinal cord and its cover the skin over the defect may reveal a dimple, small fatty mass or a tuft of hair.
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Meningocele Is a protrusion through the spina bifida, which forms a soft, saclike appearance along the spinal axis and contains spinal fluid and meninges within the sac and covered with skin.
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Meningomyelocele Is a more serious defect in which the spinal cord and / or nerve roots as well as meningocele covering protrude through the spina bifida. The degree and extent of neurogenic defect depend on the level of the defect. The higher the level the greater the defect. If in the lumbosacral, the usual of the defect is associated with a flaccid paralysis of the lower extremities, absent sensation to the level of the lesion and loss of bowel and bladder control.
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Hydrocephalus The abnormal increase in cerebrospinal fluid volume within the intracranial cavity due to a defect in the cerebrospinal fluid drainage system, intracranial pressure increases, the scalp veins dilate, and the cranial suture begin to separate.
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What is an Orthopedic Impairment? Under federal law (IDEA), an orthopedic impairment means a severe bodily impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. An orthopedic impairment involves the skeletal system-bones, joints, limbs, and associated muscles.
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What causes an Orthopedic Impairment? The term includes impairments due to the effects of congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, rheumatoid Arthritis, etc.), impairments due to the effects of disease (e.g., muscular dystrophy, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).
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