cultivation of virus

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2 : CULTIVATION OF VIRUSES Virologists need to be able to produce the objects of their study, so a wide range of procedures has been developed for cultivating viruses. Virus cultivation is also referred to as propagation or growth. Phages are supplied with bacterial cultures, plant viruses may be supplied with specially cultivated plants or with cultures of protoplasts (plant cells from which the cell wall has been removed), while animal viruses may be supplied with whole organisms, such as mice, eggs containing chick embryos or insect larvae. For the most part, however, animal viruses are grown in cultured animal cells. The primary purposes of viral cultivation are: to isolate and identify viruses in clinical specimens; (2) to prepare viruses for vaccines; and (3) to do detailed research on viral structure, multiplication cycles, genetics, and effects on host cells.
3 : Cultivation of viruses 1. Embryonated eggs 2. Laboratory animals 3. Cell cultures 1. Embryonated eggs An embryo is an early developmental stage of animals marked by rapid differentiation of cells. Birds undergo their embryonic period within the closed protective case of an egg, which makes an incubating bird egg a nearly perfect system for viral propagation. It is an intact and self-supporting unit, complete with its own sterile environment and nourishment. Furthermore, it furnishes several embryonic tissues that readily support viral multiplication. Chicken, duck, and turkey eggs are the most common choices for inoculation. The egg must be injected through the shell, usually by drilling a hole or making a small window. Rigorous sterile techniques must be used to prevent contamination by bacteria and fungi from the air and the outer surface of the shell.
4 : The exact tissue that is inoculated is guided by the type of virus being cultivated and the goals of the experiment. Viruses multiplying in embryos may or may not cause effects visible to the naked eye. The signs of viral growth include death of the embryo, defects in embryonic development, and localized areas of damage in the membranes, resulting in discrete, opaque spots called pocks. If a virus does not produce over changes in the developing embryonic tissue, virologists have other methods of detection. Embryonic fluids and tissues can be prepared for direct examination with an electron microscope. The anatomy of a ten day old embryonated egg
5 : Cultivation of different viruses in Embryonated egg
6 : 2. Laboratory animals Inoculation of laboratory animals are used when some viruses can only be isolated using this method. Normally, mice are the laboratory animals that are used. Signs of disease or death in animals are observed after inoculation. Today, laboratory animals are seldom used for routine cultivation of virus, but they still play an essential role in studies of viral pathogenesis. Problems inconvenient and expensive, not a defined system, leads to generation of escape mutants animal welfare issues. Advantages some viruses can only be studied this way gives unique insight into viral pathogenesis and host: virus relation


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