microscope ppt

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1 : MICROSCOPY Jitendra kumar pandey PG, Med. Microbiology 2nd year
2 : INTRODUCTION Microscope is the biggest tool for us to reveal the mystery and beauty of the unseen world. Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Robert Hook(1678)
3 : DEFINITION Microscope may be defined as an optical instrument consisting of a lens or combination of lenses for making an enlarged or magnified image of a minute object.
4 : Microscopes use lenses to bend and focus light rays to produce enlarged images of small objects. There are mainly two groups based on source of illumination.
5 : TYPES Light Microscope : use sunlight or artificial light. Bright field microscope. Dark field microscope. Phase contrast microscope. Fluorescence microscope. Electron microscope : use of electron. Transmission electron microscope. Scanning electron microscope.
7 : Light Microscopy Microscopes are of great importance in the study of microorganisms and biomolecules. Light microscopes are simplest of all microscopes. Light microscopes use lenses to bend and focus light rays to produce enlarged images of small objects.
8 : Types of Light Microscope. Bright-field Microscopy. Dark-field Microscopy. Phase contrast Microscopy. Fluorescence Microscopy.
9 : WORKING OF COMPOUND MICROSCOPE Light is transmitted and focussed by mirror and condenser. Focussed light illuminate the object or specimen. The refracted light is collected by an objective where primary image of the object is formed, it is real,inverted enlarged image of the object. The eyepiece further magnifies this primary image into virtual,erect enlarged image, this is the final image that lies above the stage.
10 : APPLICATION Observation of morphology of microorganisms. Detection of cell structures. Observation of intracellular structures. Observation of motility. Measurement of size. Observation of blood smears.
11 : Bright-field Microscopy
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13 : The useful magnification of Light microscope is limited by its resolving power. The resolving power in limited by wavelength of illuminating beam. Resolution is determine by certain physical parameters like wave length of light and light generating power of the objective & condenser lens.
14 : Higher N.A Better light generation Better Resolution Shorter the Wavelength Better Resolution.
15 : The ordinary microscope is called as a bright field microscop. It forms dark image against bright background.
16 : Structure It consist of sturdy metal body or stand, a base, and arm. A light source either a mirror or an electronic illuminator located in the base. Two focusing knobs are located on the arm. A stage is positioned about halfway up the arm and holds slide clip or stage clip.
17 : Bright Field Microscopy
18 : The sub stage condenser is mounted beneath the stage and focuses a cone of light on the slide. The curve upper arm holds body assembly to which nosepiece and ocular lens or eyepiece are attached. The nose piece holds three or five objective lenses of different magnifying power.
19 : These lenses can be rotated to position any objective beneath the body assembly. Ideally the microscope should be parafocal. Parafocal- Image should remain in focus when objective are changed For bright field microscopy staining of organism is required
20 : How Image is formed
21 : How Image is formed
22 : Image is created by objective and ocular lenses working together. Light from illuminated specimen is focused by the objective lens creating enlarged image within the microscope. The ocular lens further modifies the primary image.
23 : Total magnification is calculated by magnification by objective multiply by magnification by eyepiece. Ex : 45x X 10x =450x
24 : Image formed by bright field microscopy
25 : Advantages Bright field compound microscopes are commonly used to view live and immobile specimens such as bacteria, cells, and tissues. For transparent or colorless specimens, however, it is important that they be stained first so that they can be properly viewed under this type of a microscope. Staining is achieved with the use of a chemical dye. By applying it, the specimen would be able to adapt the color of the dye. Therefore, the light won’t simply pass through the body of the specimen showing nothing on the microscope’s view field
26 : Dark field Microscopy
27 : Dark field microscopy allows viewer to observe living unstained cell and organisms simply by changing the way in which they illuminate the object. A hollow cone of light is focused on the specimen in such a way that unreflected and unrefracted rays do not enter the objective.
28 : Only light that has been reflected or refracted by the specimen forms the image The field surrounding specimen appears dark while the object brightly illuminated. The dark field microscope can revel considerable internal structure in larger eukaryotic microorganism.
29 : How image formed in dark field microscopy
30 : Advantages The advantage of darkfield microscopy also becomes its disadvantage: not only the specimen, but dust and other particles scatter the light and are easily observed For example, not only the cheek cells but the bacteria in saliva are evident. The dark field microscopes divert illumination and light rays thus, making the details of the specimen appear luminous.
31 : Dark field light microscopes provide good results, especially through the examination of live blood samples. It can yield high magnifications of living bacteria and low magnifications of the tissues and cells of certain organisms. Certain bacteria and fungi can be studied with the use of dark field microscopes.
33 : DEFINITION Phase contrast microscopy is an optical illumination technique in which small phase shifts in the light passing through a transparent specimen are converted into amplitude or contrast changes in the image. The technique was invented by Frits Zernite in the 1930s for which he received the Nobel prize in physics in 1953 .
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35 : Application Applications for phase contrast microscopy equipment range from the study of living biological specimens, medical applications, study of live blood cells, and other biological and science applications Most commonly used to provide constrast of transparent specimens such as living cells or small organisms.
36 : Phase contrast microscopy is used in study of living cells and tissues. Microbes and parasites can be study . Useful in observing cells cultured in vitro during mitosis.
38 : Why fluorescence microscopy? In all types of microscopes, cell constituents are not distinguishable, although staining dose , but not totally. In fluorescent microscopy, various fluorescent dyes are used which gives property of fluorescence to only specific part of the cell and hence it can be focused.
39 : Fluorescence Principle When certain compounds are illuminated with high energy light, they then emit light of a different, lower frequency. This effect is known as fluorescence. Often specimens show their own characteristic autofluorescence image, based on their chemical makeup.
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41 : Many different fluorescent dyes can be used to stain different structures or chemical compounds. One particularly powerful method is the combination of antibodies coupled to a fluorochrome as in immunostaining. Examples of commonly used fluorochromes are fluorescein or rhodamine
42 : Fluorescent Microscope
43 : A component of interest in the specimen is specifically labeled with a fluorescent molecule called a fluorophore The specimen is illuminated with light of a specific wavelength (or wavelengths) which is absorbed by the fluorophores, causing them to emit longer wavelengths of light (of a different color than the absorbed light). Typical components of a fluorescence microscope are the light source (xenon arc lamp or mercury-vapor lamp), the excitation filter, the dichroic mirror and the emission filter.
44 : The illumination light is separated from the much weaker emitted fluorescence through the use of an emission filter. The filters and the dichroic are chosen to match the spectral excitation and emission characteristics of the fluorophore used to label the specimen. In this manner, a single fluorophore (color) is imaged at a time. Multi-color images of several fluorophores must be composed by combining several single-color images.
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49 : Applications Fluorescence microscopy is a critical tool for academic and pharmaceutical research, pathology, and clinical medicine.
51 : INTRODUCTION Electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses a particle beam of electrons to illuminate a specimen & create a highly-magnified image. Co-invented by Germans, Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska in 1931
52 : Electron microscopes have much greater resolving power than light microscopes & can obtain much higher magnifications of up to 2 million times, while the best light microscopes are limited to magnifications of 2000 times.  Can be used to study the Topography, Morphology, Composition & Crystallographic Information.
53 : Structure
54 : Structure Electron Gun: 2 types of guns- Thermionic Emission Gun & Field Emission Gun. Thermionic: Electrons emitted from heated filament ( tungsten, Lanthanum Hexaboride). Most common, cheap & ultra high vaccum not required. Field Emission: Strong electron field used to extract electrons from filament. High vaccum needed.
55 : Structure Electromagnetic lens: An electromagnet designed to produce a suitably shaped magnetic field for focusing & deflection of electrons in electron optical instruments. A strong magnetic field is generated by passing a current through a set of windings. This field acts as a convex lens in case of electron microscope.
56 : Structure First condenser lens: The first lens(controlled by "spot size knob") largely determines the "spot size"; the general size range of the final spot that strikes the sample. Second condenser lens: The second lens(controlled by the "intensity/ brightness knob" changes the size of the spot on the sample; changing it from a wide dispersed spot to a pinpoint beam.
57 : Structure The other parts include condenser aperture, objective lens, objective aperture, selected area aperture(to examine diffraction patterns), Intermediate lens(magnifies initial image formed by objective lens) & projector lens.
58 : TYPES There are 2 types of electron microscopes: Transmission Electron Microscope: Process is carried out under vaccum to avoid friction. The "Virtual Source" at the top represents the electron gun, producing a stream of monochromatic electrons. The usual potential is around 10000 – 15000V.
59 : TEM This stream is focused to a small, thin, coherent beam by the condenser lenses 1 & 2. The beam is restricted by condenser aperture knocking out high angle electrons. The beam strikes the specimen and parts of it are transmitted.
60 : TEM This transmitted portion is focused by the objective lens into an image. The Objective & Selected Area metal apertures restrict the beam. The image is passed down the column through the intermediate and projector lenses, being enlarged all the way. The image strikes the phosphor image screen & light is generated, allowing the user to see the image. The darker areas represent areas that fewer electrons were transmitted (thicker or denser). The lighter areas represent areas that more electrons were transmitted (thinner or less dense)
61 : TEM  A TEM images using the electrons that pass through it- Unscattered Electrons, Elastically Scattered Electrons , Inelasticity Scattered electrons.  TEM transmits electrons through a sample that has been cut so that it is only a few molecules thin & it reveals internal details of sample. Good resolution power up to 0.2 – 0.3nm.
62 : SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE  The 1st  scanning electron microscope (SEM) debuted in 1938 by Von Ardenne with the first commercial instruments out around 1965. In this case electrons are not used to directly image the specimen, but to excite it in such a way that it gives out secondary electrons which are collected by detectors & used to form the image.  The first scanning electron microscope (SEM) debuted in 1938 ( Von Ardenne) with the first commercial instruments around 1965.  The first scanning electron microscope (SEM) debuted in 1938 ( Von Ardenne) with the first commercial instruments around 1965.
63 : SEM The "Virtual Source" at the top represents the electron gun, producing a stream of monochromatic electrons. The stream is condensed by 1st condenser lens (controlled by "coarse probe current knob"). This lens is used to both form the beam and limit the amount of current in the beam.
64 : SEM The beam is then constricted by the condenser aperture eliminating some high-angle electrons The second condenser lens forms electrons into a thin, tight, coherent beam & is controlled by "fine probe current knob" The objective aperture further eliminates high-angle electrons from the beam
65 : SEM A set of coils then "scan" or "sweep" the beam dwelling on points for a period of time determined by the scan speed (usually in the ?s range) The Objective lens, focuses the scanning beam onto part of the specimen desired. When the beam strikes the sample (for few ?s) interactions occur inside the sample and are detected by release of electrons.
66 : SEM Before the beam moves to its next dwell point these instruments count the number of interactions and display a pixel whose intensity is determined by this number (the more reactions the brighter the pixel). The interactions lead to release of – secondary electrons, backscattered electrons & X- rays.
67 : Sample Preparation - TEM Specimen is required to be completely dry. chemical fixation is required to preserve and stabilize the structure of specimen. Fixation is usually performed by incubation in a solution such as glutaraldehyde to cross- link proteins & followed by postfixation with osmium tetroxide to fix & stain lipid membranes.
68 : Sample Preparation - TEM The fixed tissue is then dehydrated. Because air-drying causes collapse and shrinkage, this is commonly achieved by critical point drying, which involves replacement of water in the cells with organic solvents such as ethanol or acetone. After dehydration, tissue for observation is embedded so it can be sectioned ready for viewing. To do this the tissue is passed through a 'transition solvent' such as epoxy propane and then infiltrated with a resin such as Araldite epoxy resin. After the resin has been polymerised the sample is thin sectioned (ultrathin sections)
69 : Sample Preparation - TEM Sectioning – produces thin slices of specimen, semitransparent to electrons. These can be cut on an ultramicrotome with a diamond knife to produce ultrathin slices about 60-90 nm thick. Staining – uses salts of heavy metals such as lead, uranium or tungsten to scatter imaging electrons and thus give contrast between different structures.
70 : Sample Preparation - SEM Specimen is required to be completely dry, since the specimen chamber is at high vacuum. living cells and tissues and whole, soft-bodied organisms usually require chemical fixation to preserve and stabilize their structure.  Fixation is performed with glutaraldehyde followed with osmium tetroxide .
71 : Sample Preparation The fixed tissue is then dehydrated by replacement of water in the cells with organic solvents such as ethanol or acetone. The dry specimen is usually mounted on a specimen stub using an adhesive such as epoxy resin & sputter coated with gold before examination in the microscope. Gold has a high atomic number and sputter coating with gold produces high topographic contrast and resolution.
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74 : Advantages Spirillum volutans. Electron micrograph showing individual flagella
75 : Leptospira biflexa. Electron micrograph showing axial filament.


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