nursing management of patient with schizophrenia


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1 : Schizophrenia Mr. Vinodkumar Patil Principal Smt. Sushiladevi Nagur Memorial Nursing School Bijapur. 586101
2 : Definition The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted. Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained although certain cognitive deficits may evolve in the course of time.
3 : Conti… The most important psychopathological phenomena include thought echo thought insertion or withdrawal thought broadcasting delusional perception and delusions of control influence or passivity hallucinatory voices commenting or discussing the patient in the third person thought disorders and negative symptoms.
4 : Schizophrenia Schizophrenia occurs with regular frequency nearly everywhere in the world in 1 % of population and begins mainly in young age (mostly around 16 to 25 years).
5 : Schizophrenia is defined by a group of characteristic positive and negative symptoms deterioration in social, occupational, or interpersonal relationships continuous signs of the disturbance for at least 6 months
6 : History Emil Kraepelin: This illness develops relatively early in life, and its course is likely deteriorating and chronic; deterioration reminded dementia („Dementia praecox“), but was not followed by any organic changes of the brain, detectable at that time.
7 : Eugen Bleuler: He renamed Kraepelin’s dementia praecox as schizophrenia (1911); he recognized the cognitive impairment in this illness, which he named as a „splitting“ of mind. Kurt Schneider: He emphasized the role of psychotic symptoms, as hallucinations, delusions and gave them the privilege of „the first rank symptoms” even in the concept of the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
8 : 4 A (Bleuler) Bleuler maintained, that for the diagnosis of schizophrenia are most important the following four fundamental symptoms: affective blunting disturbance of association (fragmented thinking) autism ambivalence (fragmented emotional response) These groups of symptoms, are called „four A’ s” and Bleuler thought, that they are „primary” for this diagnosis.
9 : The other known symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, which are appearing in schizophrenia very often also, he used to call as a “secondary symptoms”, because they could be seen in any other psychotic disease, which are caused by quite different factors — from intoxication to infection or other disease entities.
10 : Course of Illness Course of schizophrenia: continuous without temporary improvement episodic with progressive or stable deficit episodic with complete or incomplete remission Typical stages of schizophrenia: prodromal phase active phase residual phase
11 : Clinical Picture Diagnostic manuals: lCD-10 („International Classification of Disease“, WHO) DSM-IV („Diagnostic and Statistical Manual“, APA) Clinical picture of schizophrenia is according to lCD-10, defined from the point of view of the presence and expression of primary and/or secondary symptoms (at present covered by the terms negative and positive symptoms):
12 : the negative symptoms are represented by cognitive disorders, having its origin probably in the disorders of associations of thoughts, combined with emotional blunting and small or missing production of hallucinations and delusions the positive symptom are characterized by the presence of hallucinations and delusions the division is not quite strict and lesser or greater mixture of symptoms from these two groups are possible
13 : Positive and Negative Symptoms Andreasen N.C., Roy M.-A., Flaum M.: Positive and negative symptoms. In: Schizophrenia, Hirsch S.R. and Weinberger D.R., eds., Blackwell Science, pp. 28-45, 1995
14 : The Criteria of Diagnosis For the diagnosis of schizophrenia is necessary presence of one very clear symptom - from point a) to d) or the presence of the symptoms from at least two groups - from point e) to h) for one month or more: the hearing of own thoughts, the feelings of thought withdrawal, thought insertion, or thought broadcasting the delusions of control, outside manipulation and influence, or the feelings of passivity, which are connected with the movements of the body or extremities, specific thoughts, acting or feelings, delusional perception
15 : c)hallucinated voices, which are commenting permanently the behavior of the patient or they talk about him between themselves, or the other types of hallucinatory voices, coming from different parts of body d)permanent delusions of different kind, which are inappropriate and unacceptable in given culture
16 : The Criteria of Diagnosis the lasting hallucination of every form blocks or intrusion of thoughts into the flow of thinking and resulting incoherence and irrelevance of speech, or neologisms catatonic behavior “the negative symptoms”, for instance the expressed apathy, poor speech, blunting and inappropriateness of emotional reactions expressed and conspicuous qualitative changes in patient’s behavior, the loss of interests, hobbies, aimlessness, inactivity, the loss of relations to others and social withdrawal
17 : Diagnosis of acute schizophorm disorder (F23.2) – if the conditions for diagnosis of schizophrenia are fulfilled, but lasting less than one month Diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder (F25) - if the schizophrenic and affective symptoms are developing together at the same time
18 : F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional Disorders F20 Schizophrenia F20.0 Paranoid schizophrenia F20.1 Hebephrenic schizophrenia F20.2 Catatonic schizophrenia F20.3 Undifferentiated schizophrenia F20.4 Post-schizophrenic depression F20.5 Residual schizophrenia F20.6 Simple schizophrenia F20.8 Other schizophrenia F20.9 Schizophrenia, unspecified
19 : F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional Disorders F21 Schizotypal disorder F22 Persistent delusional disorders F22.0 Delusional disorder F22.8 Other persistent delusional disorders F22.9 Persistent delusional disorder, unspecified F23 Acute and transient psychotic disorders F23.1 Acute polymorphic psychotic disorder with symptoms of schizophrenia F23.2 Acute schizophrenia-like psychotic disorder F23.3 Other acute predominantly delusional psychotic disorders F23.8 Other acute and transient psychotic disorders F23.9 Acute and transient psychotic disorder, unspecified
20 : F20-F29 Schizophrenia, Schizotypal and Delusional Disorders F24 Induced delusional disorder F25 Schizoaffective disorders F25.0 Schizoaffective disorder, manic type F25.1 Schizoaffective disorder, depressive type F25.2 Schizoaffective disorder, mixed type F25.8 Other schizoaffective disorders F25.9 Schizoaffective disorder, unspecified F28 Other nonorganic psychotic disorders F29 Unspecified nonorganic psychosis
21 : F20.0 Paranoid Schizophrenia Paranoid schizophrenia is characterized mainly by delusions of persecution, feelings of passive or active control, feelings of intrusion, and often by megalomanic tendencies also. The delusions are not usually systemized too much, without tight logical connections and are often combined with hallucinations of different senses, mostly with hearing voices.
22 : Disturbances of affect, volition and speech, and catatonic symptoms, are either absent or relatively inconspicuous.
23 : F20.1 Hebephrenic Schizophrenia Hebephrenic schizophrenia is characterized by disorganized thinking with blunted and inappropriate emotions. It begins mostly in adolescent age, the behavior is often bizarre. There could appear mannerisms, grimacing, inappropriate laugh and joking, pseudo philosophical brooding and sudden impulsive reactions without external stimulation. There is a tendency to social isolation.
24 : Usually the prognosis is poor because of the rapid development of "negative" symptoms, particularly flattening of affect and loss of volition. Hebephrenia should normally be diagnosed only in adolescents or young adults. Denoted also as disorganized schizophrenia
25 : F20.2 Catatonic Schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia is characterized mainly by motoric activity, which might be strongly increased (hypekinesis) or decreased (stupor), or automatic obedience and negativism.
26 : We recognize two forms: productive form — which shows catatonic excitement, extreme and often aggressive activity. Treatment by neuroleptics or by electroconvulsive therapy. stuporose form — characterized by general inhibition of patient’s behavior or at least by retardation and slowness, followed often by mutism, negativism, fexibilitas cerea or by stupor. The consciousness is not absent.
27 : F20.3 Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Psychotic conditions meeting the general diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia but not conforming to any of the subtypes in F20.0-F20.2, or exhibiting the features of more than one of them without a clear predominance of a particular set of diagnostic characteristics. This subgroup represents also the former diagnosis of atypical schizophrenia.
28 : F20.4 Postschizophrenic Depression A depressive episode, which may be prolonged, arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness. Some schizophrenic symptoms, either „positive“ or „negative“, must still be present but they no longer dominate the clinical picture. These depressive states are associated with an increased risk of suicide.
29 : F20.5 Residual Schizophrenia A chronic stage in the development of schizophrenia with clear succession from the initial stage with one or more episodes characterized by general criteria of schizophrenia to the late stage with long-lasting negative symptoms and deterioration (not necessarily irreversible).
30 : F20.6 Simple Schizophrenia Simple schizophrenia is characterized by early and slowly developing initial stage with growing social isolation, withdrawal, small activity, passivity, avolition and dependence on the others. The patients are indifferent, without any initiative and volition. There is not expressed the presence of hallucinations and delusions.
31 : F21 Schizotypal disorder According to lCD-10 this disorder is characterized by eccentric behavior and by deviations of thinking and affectivity, which are similar to that occurring in schizophrenia, but without psychotic features and expressed symptoms of schizophrenia of any type.
32 : F22 Persistent Delusional Disorders Includes a variety of disorders in which long-standing delusions constitute the only, or the most conspicuous, clinical characteristic and which cannot be classified as organic, schizophrenic or affective. Their origin is probably heterogeneous, but it seems, that there is some relation to schizophrenia.
33 : F22.0 Delusional Disorder A disorder characterized by the development of one delusion or of the group of similar related delusions, which are persisting unusually long, very often for the whole life. Other psychopathological symptoms — hallucinations, intrusion of thoughts etc. are not present and are excluding this diagnosis. It begins usually in the middle age.
34 : F23 Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorders The criteria should be the following features: acute beginning (to two weeks) presence of typical symptoms (quickly changing “polymorphic symptoms”) presence of typical schizophrenic symptoms. Complete recovery usually occurs within a few months, often within a few weeks or even days. The disorder may or may not be associated with acute stress, defined as usually stressful events preceding the onset by one to two weeks.
35 : F24 Induced Delusional Disorder A delusional disorder shared by two or more people with close emotional links. Only one of the people suffers from a genuine psychotic disorder; the delusions are induced in the other(s) and usually disappear when the people are separated. The psychotic disorder of the dominant member of this dyad is mainly, but not necessarily, of schizophrenic type. The original delusions of dominant member and his partner are usually chronic, either persecutory or megalomanic.
36 : F25 Schizoaffective Disorders Episodic disorders in which both affective and schizophrenic symptoms are prominent (during the same episode of the illness or at least during few days) but which do not justify a diagnosis of either schizophrenia or depressive or manic episodes. Patients suffering from periodic schizoaffective disorders, especially with manic symptoms, have usually good prognosis with full remissions without any remaining defects. They are divided in different subgroups: F25.0 Schizoaffective disorder, manic type F25.1 Schizoaffective disorder, depressive type F25.2 Schizoaffective disorder, mixed type F25.8 Other schizoaffective disorders F25.9 Schizoaffective disorder, unspecified
37 : Genetics of Schizophrenia Many psychiatric disorders are multifactorial (caused by the interaction of external and genetic factors) and from the genetic point of view very often polygenically determined. Relative risk for schizophrenia is around: 1% for normal population 5.6% for parents 10.1% for siblings 12.8% for children
38 : Etiology of Schizophrenia The etiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia is not known It is accepted, that schizophrenia is „the group of schizophrenias“ which origin is multifactorial: internal factors – genetic, inborn, biochemical external factors – trauma, infection of CNS, stress
39 : Etiology of Schizophrenia - Dopamine Hypothesis The most influential and plausible are the hypotheses, based on the supposed disorder of neurotransmission in the brain, derived mainly from the effects of antipsychotic drugs that have in common the ability to inhibit the dopaminergic system by blocking action of dopamine in the brain dopamine-releasing drugs (amphetamine, mescaline, diethyl amide of lysergic acid - LSD) that can induce state closely resembling paranoid schizophrenia Classical dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: Psychotic symptoms are related to dopaminergic hyperactivity in the brain. Hyperactivity of dopaminergic systems during schizophrenia is result of increased sensitivity and density of dopamine D2 receptors in the different parts of the brain.
40 : Etiology of Schizophrenia - Contemporary Models Dopamine hypothesis revisited: various neurotransmitter systems probably takes place in the etiology of schizophrenia (norepinephric, serotonergic, glutamatergic, some peptidergic systems); based on effects of atypical antipsychotics especially. Contemporary models of schizophrenia conceptualize it as a neurocognitive disorder, with the various signs and symptoms reflecting the downstream effects of a more fundamental cognitive deficit: the symptoms of schizophrenia arise from “cognitive dysmetria” (Nancy C. Andreasen) concept of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder (Daniel R. Weinberger)
41 : Etiology of Schizophrenia - Neurodevelopmental Model Neurodevelopmental model supposes in schizophrenia the presence of “silent lesion” in the brain, mostly in the parts, important for the development of integration (frontal, parietal and temporal), which is caused by different factors (genetic, inborn, infection, trauma...) during very early development of the brain in prenatal or early postnatal period of life. It does not interfere too much with the basic brain functioning in early years, but expresses itself in the time, when the subject is stressed by demands of growing needs for integration, during formative years in adolescence and young adulthood.
42 : Treatment of Schizophrenia The acute psychotic schizophrenic patients will respond usually to antipsychotic medication. According to current consensus we use in the first line therapy the newer atypical antipsychotics, because their use is not complicated by appearance of extrapyramidal side-effects, or these are much lower than with classical antipsychotics.
43 : Electroconvulsive therapy Indication for ECT in schizophrenia include: Catatonic stupor Uncontrolled catatonix excitement Severe side effects with drugs Schizophrenia refractory to all other forms of treatment Usually 8-12 ECTs are required
44 : Psychological therapies Group therapy: The social interaction Sense of cohesiveness Identification Reality testing achieved within the group
45 : Psychological therapies Behavior therapy: is useful in Reducing the frequency of bizarre, disturbing and deviant behavior And increasing appropriate behaviors Social skills training: addresses behaviors such as Poor eye contact, odd facial expressions and lack of spontaneity in social situations through the use of videotapes, role playing and home work assignment
46 : Psychological therapies Cognitive therapy: used to improve cognitive distortions like Reducing distractibility and Correcting judgment. Family therapy: Family education
47 : Psychosocial rehablitaion This includes activity therapy to develop the Work habit Training in a new vocation or retraining in a previous skill Vocational guidance Independent job placement
48 : Nursing management Nursing assessment History collection Patient Family members Significant others Previous records Mental status examination Physical examination Laboratory investigations
49 : Nursing management Nursing diagnosis 1 Disturbed thought process related inability to trust evidenced by delusional thinking. Objectives: the patient will Eliminate pattern of delusional thinking
50 : Nursing interventions Assess the content of delusion Assess the intensity, frequency and duration of the delusion. Assess the context and environmental triggers for the delusional experience. Approach the patient with calmness, empathy and gentle eye contact.
51 : Conti… Distract the patient from delusions that tend to exacerbate aggressive or potentially violent episodes. Promote activities that require attention to physical skills and will help the patient use time constructively. Discourage long discussions about the irrational thinking. Instead talk about real events and real people.
52 : Following interventions will help highly suspicious patients: Use the same staff as far as possible Be honest and keep the all the promises. Avoid physical contact in the form of touching the patient. Avoid laughing, whispering or talking quietly where the patient can see but cannot hear what is being said.
53 : Nursing diagnosis II Ineffective health maintenance related to inability to trust, extreme suspiciousness evidenced by inadequate food and fluid intake. Objective: Maintain adequate nutrition, hydration and elimination.
54 : Nursing interventions Assess for malnutrition and dehydration. Creative approaches may need to be taken with the patients who is not eating such as allowing to take packed foods, fruits and eggs etc.. If the patient is suspicious to take medications, allows the patient to open the sealed medication packed.
55 : Nursing diagnosis III Self care deficit related to withdrawal, evidenced by difficulty in carrying out tasks associated with hygiene, dressing, grooming, eating etc… Objective: Demonstrate increased interest in self care.
56 : Nursing interventions Assess patient’s ability to meet self-care activities. Provide assistance with self care needs as required. Develop a structured schedule for patient’s routine for hygiene, toileting and meals. Encourage the patient to perform independently as many activities as possible.
57 : Conti… Praise the patient for complete activities of daily living and for initiating self-care activities. Allow the patient enough time to complete any task. Gradually withdraw assistance and supervise the patient’s grooming or other self-care skills.
58 : Nursing diagnosis IV Risk for self-inflicted or life-threatening injury related to command hallucinations evidenced by suicidal ideas. Objective: Patient will not harm self.
59 : Nursing interventions Assess the nature and severity of hallucinations by asking the patient to describe. Create a safe environment for the patient, remove all potentially harmful objects from patient’s vicinity Ask the patient directly, ‘have you thought about harming yourself in any way? If so, what do you have the means to carry out this plan?
60 : Conti.. Keep the patient near the nurses station. Do not allow the patient to put the bolt on his side of the door of bathroom or toilet.
61 : Nursing diagnosis V Disturbed sensory-perception (auditory/visual) related to panic anxiety or biochemical factors evidenced by inappropriate responses. Objective: Demonstrate decreased hallucination.
62 : Nursing interventions Nurse should show acceptance and use active listening skills. Assess for type of hallucinations and characteristics of hallucinations. Ask what voices are saying and whose voice it is. Avoid further discussion of hallucination to prevent reinforcing inappropriate behavior.
63 : Conti… Observe the patient for hallucinating behavior like talking to self, laughing to self, stopping in mid-sentence. Determine precipitating factors that may exacerbate the patient’s hallucinatory experience. Interrupt hallucination by calling patient by name or move the patient to another area.
64 : Conti… Help the patient to understand the connection between anxiety and hallucination. Help patient learn that he can dismiss hallucinations by humming or whistling or saying “go away” or “be quiet” Provide a busy schedule of activity to prevent being all alone. Provide conversation or a concrete activity of interest to the patient.
65 : Conti… Show acceptance of the patient’s behavior and of the patient as a person. Educate the patient and family/significant others about the patient’s symptoms, the importance of medication compliance.
66 : evaluation A few questions that may facilitate the process of evaluation can be: Has the patient established trust with at least one staff member? Is delusional thinking still prevalent? Are hallucinations still evident? Is the patient able to interact with others appropriately?
67 : The end

 

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