routes of drug administration

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2 : SYSTEMIC Enteral Parenteral Oral Inhalational Sublingual Injections Rectal Transdermal LOCAL CLASSIFICATION Intravenous Intramuscular Subcutaneous Intra-arterial Intra-articular Intrathecal Intradermal
3 : FACTORS GOVERNING CHOICE OF ROUTE Physical & chemical properties of drug Site of desired action Rate & extent of absorption from various routes Effect of digestive juices & first pass effect Rapidity of the desired response Accuracy of dosage Condition of the patient
4 : Commonly Used Routes of Drug Administration
5 : ADVANTAGES Safe Convenient Economical Usually good absorption Can be self administered DISADVANTAGES Slow absorption slow action Irritable and unpalatable drugs Unco-operative and unconscious patients Some drugs destroyed First-pass effect ORAL ROUTE
6 : ADVANTAGES Economical Quick termination First-pass avoided Drug absorption is quick Can be self administered DISADVANTAGES Unpalatable & bitter drugs Irritation of oral mucosa Large quantities not given Few drugs are absorbed SUBLINGUAL ROUTE
7 : ADVANTAGES Used in children Little or no first pass effect Used in vomiting/unconsciuos Higher concentrations rapidly achieved DISADVANTAGES Inconvenient Absorption is slow and erratic Irritation or inflammation of rectal mucosa can occur RECTAL ROUTE
9 : ADMINISTRATION OF DRUGS BY THE PARENTERAL ROUTE Needle insertion for parenteral drug: (A) Intradermal injection. (B) Subcutaneous injection (C) Intramuscular Injection (D) Intravenous injection:
10 : Injection is the most common parenteral route. For drugs that are not absorbed orally. Avoids first-pass metabolism by the liver. Intravenous delivery permits a rapid effect and a maximal degree of control over the circulating levels of the drug. However, unlike drugs in the GI tract, those that are injected cannot be recalled by strategies such as emesis or by binding to activated charcoal. IV injection may also induce hemolysis or cause other adverse reactions by the too-rapid delivery of high concentrations of drug to the plasma and tissues Similar concerns apply to intra-arterially injected drugs. INTRAVENOUS ROUTE
11 : ADVANTAGES Absorption reasonably uniform Rapid onset of action Mild irritants can be given First pass avoided Gastric factors can be avoided DISADVANTAGES Only upto 10ml drug given Local pain and abcess Expensive Infection Nerve damage INTRAMUSULAR ROUTE
12 : This route of administration, like that of IM injection, requires absorption and is somewhat slower than the IV route. Subcutaneous injection minimizes the risks associated with intravascular injection. SUBCUTANEOUS ROUTE
13 : Inhalation provides the rapid delivery of a drug across the large surface area of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and pulmonary epithelium, producing an effect almost as rapidly as with IV injection. This route of administration is used for drugs that are gases (for example, some anesthetics) or those that can be dispersed in an aerosol. This route is particularly effective and convenient for patients with respiratory complaints (such as asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) because the drug is delivered directly to the site of action and systemic side effects are minimized. Examples of drugs administered via this route include albuterol, and corticosteroids, such as fluticasone. Inhalation
14 : This route involves administration of drugs directly into the nose. Agents include nasal decongestants such as the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid. Desmopressin is administered intranasally in the treatment of diabetes insipidus; salmon calcitonin, a peptide hormone used in the treatment of osteoporosis, is also available as a nasal spray. The abused drug, cocaine, is generally taken by intranasal sniffing. It is sometimes necessary to introduce drugs directly into the cerebrospinal fluid. For example, amphotericin B is used in treating Cryptococcal meningitis Intranasal Intrathecal/intraventricular
15 : This route of administration achieves systemic effects by application of drugs to the skin, usually via a transdermal patch. The rate of absorption can vary markedly, depending on the physical characteristics of the skin at the site of application. This route is most often used for the sustained delivery of drugs, such as the antianginal drug nitroglycerin, the antiemetic scopolamine. Transdermal
16 : TOPICAL OR LOCAL ROUTE Mucous membrane of eye, ear, nose throat, mouth urinary bladder, vagina and rectum Ointments, creams ,lotions and powders used Transdermal patches are also used


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