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     1  ABDOMINAL PAIN Location Work-up Acute pain syndromes Chronic pain syndromes
     2  Epigastric Pain PUD GERD MI AAA- abdominal aortic aneurysm Pancreatic pain Gallbladder and common bile duct obstruction
     3  Right Upper Quadrant Pain Acute Cholecystitis and Biliary Colic Acute Hepatitis or Abscess Hepatomegaly due to CHF Perforated Duodenal Ulcer Herpes Zoster Myocardial Ischemia Right Lower Lobe Pneumonia
     4  Left Upper Quadrant Pain Acute Pancreatitis Gastric ulcer Gastritis Splenic enlargement, rupture or infarction Myocardial ischemia Left lower lobe pneumonia
     5  Right lower Quadrant Pain Appendicitis Regional Enteritis Small bowel obstruction Leaking Aneurysm Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy PID Twisted Ovarian Cyst Ureteral Calculi Hernia
     6  Left Lower Quadrant Pain Diverticulitis Leaking Aneurysm Ruptured Ectopic pregnancy PID Twisted Ovarian Cyst Ureteral Calculi Hernia Regional Enteritis
     7  Periumbilical Pain Disease of transverse colon Gastroenteritis Small bowel pain Appendicitis Early bowel obstruction
     8  Diffuse Pain Generalized peritonitis Acute Pancreatitis Sickle Cell Crisis Mesenteric Thrombosis Gastroenteritis Metabolic disturbances Dissecting or Rupturing Aneurysm Intestinal Obstruction Psychogenic illness
     9  Referred Pain Pneumonia (lower lobes) Inferior myocardial infarction Pulmonary infarction
     10  TYPES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN Visceral originates in abdominal organs covered by peritoneum Colic crampy pain Parietal from irritation of parietal peritoneum Referred produced by pathology in one location felt at another location
     11  ORGANIC VERSUS FUNCTIONAL PAIN HISTORY ORGANIC FUNCTIONAL Pain character Acute, persistent pain Less likely to change increasing in intensity Pain localization Sharply localized Various locations Pain in relation to sleep Awakens at night No affect Pain in relation to Further away At umbilicus umbilicus Associated symptoms Fever, anorexia, Headache, dizziness, vomiting, wt loss, multiple system com- anemia, elevated ESR plaints Psychological stress None reported Present
     12  WORK-UP OF ABDOMINAL PAIN HISTORY Onset Qualitative description Intensity Frequency Location - Does it go anywhere (referred)? Duration Aggravating and relieving factors
     13  WORK-UP PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Inspection Auscultation Percussion Palpation Guarding - rebound tenderness Rectal exam Pelvic exam
     14  WORK-UP LABORATORY TESTS U/A CBC Additional depending on rule outs amylase, lipase, LFT’s
     15  WORK-UP DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES Plain X-rays (flat plate) Contrast studies - barium (upper and lower GI series) Ultrasound CT scanning Endoscopy Sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy
     16  Common Acute Pain Syndromes Appendicitis Acute diverticulitis Cholecystitis Pancreatitis Perforation of an ulcer Intestinal obstruction Ruptured AAA Pelvic disorders
     17  APPENDICITIS Inflammatory disease of wall of appendix Diagnosis based on history and physical Classic sequence of symptoms abdominal pain (begins epigastrium or periumbilical area, anorexia, nausea or vomiting followed by pain over appendix and low grade fever
     18  DIAGNOSIS Physical examination low grade fever McBurney’s point rebound, guarding, +psoas sign CBC, HCG WBC range from 10,000-16,000 SURGERY
     19  DIVERTICULITIS Results from stagnation of fecal material in single diverticulum leading to pressure necrosis of mucosa and inflammation Clinical presentation most pts have h/o diverticula mild to moderate, colicky to steady, aching abdominal pain - usually LLQ may have fever and leukocytosis
     20  PHYSICAL EXAMINATION With obstruction bowel sounds hyperactive Tenderness over affected section of bowel DIAGNOSIS Often made on clinical grounds CBC - will not always see leukocytosis MANAGEMENT Spontaneous resolution common with low-grade fever, mild leukocytosis, and minimal abdominal pain Treat at home with limited physical activity, reducing fluid intake, and oral antibiotics (bactrim DS bid or cipro 500mg bid & flagyl 500 mg tid for 7-14 days) Treatment is usually stopped when asymptomatic Patients who present acutely ill with possible signs of systemic peritonititis,, sepsis, and hypovolemia need admission
     21  CHOLECYSTITIS Results from obstruction of cystic or common bile duct by large gallstones Colicky pain with progression to constant pain in RUQ that may radiate to R scapula Physical findings tender to palpation or percussion RUQ may have palpable gallbladder
     22  DIAGNOSIS CBC, LFTs (bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase), serum pancreatic enzymes Plain abdominal films demonstrate biliary air hepatomegaly, and maybe gallstones Ultrasound - considered accurate about 95% MANAGEMENT Admission
     23  PANCREATITIS History of cholelithiasis or ETOH abuse Pain steady and boring, unrelieved by position change - LUQ with radiation to back - nausea and vomiting, diaphoretic Physical findings; acutely ill with abdominal distention, ? BS diffuse rebound upper abd may show muscle rigidity
     24  Diagnostic studies - CBC - Ultrasound - Serum amylase and lipase - amylase rises 2-12 hours after onset and returns to normal in 2-3 days - lipase is elevated several days after attack Management - Admission
     25  PEPTIC ULCER PERFORATION Life-threatening complication of peptic ulcer disease - more common with duodenal than gastric Predisposing factors Helicobacter pylori infections NSAIDs hypersecretory states
     26  Sudden onset of severe intense, steady epigasric pain with radiation to sides, back, or right shoulder Past h/o burning, gnawing pain worse with empty stomach Physical findings - epigastric tenderness - rebound tenderness - abdominal muscle rigidity Diagnostic studies - upright or lateral decubitis X-ray shows air under the diaphragm or peritoneal cavity REFER - SURGICAL EMERGENCY
     27  SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION Distention results in decreased absorption and increased secretions leading to further distention and fluid and electrolyte imbalance Number of causes Sudden onset of crampy pain usually in umbilical area of epigastrium - vomiting occurs early with small bowel and late with large bowel
     28  Physical findings - hyperactive, high-pitched BS - fecal mass may be palpable - abdominal distention - empty rectum on digital exam Diagnosis - CBC - serum amylase - stool for occult blood - type and crossmatch - abdominal X-ray Management - Hospitalization
     29  RUPTURED AORTIC ANEURYSM AAA is abnormal dilation of abdominal aorta forming aneurysm that may rupture and cause exsanguination into peritoneum More frequent in elderly Sudden onset of excrutiating pain may be felt in chest or abdomen and may radiate to legs and back
     30  Physical findings - appears shocky - VS reflect impending shock - deficit or difference in femoral pulses Diagnosis - CT or MRI - ECG, cardiac enzymes SURGICAL EMERGENCY
     31  PELVIC PAIN Ectopic pregnancy PID UTI Ovarian cysts
     32  CHRONIC PAIN SYNDROMES Irritable bowel syndrome Chronic pancreatitis Diverticulosis Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Inflammatory bowel disease Duodenal ulcer Gastric ulcer
     33  IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME GI condition classified as functional as no identifiable structural or biochemical abnormalities Affects 14%-24% of females and 5%-19% of males Onset in late adolescence to early adulthood Rare to see onset > 50 yrs old
     34  SYMPTOMS Pain described as nonradiating, intermittent, crampy located lower abdomen Usually worse 1-2 hrs after meals Exacerbated by stress Relieved by BM Does not interrupt sleep critical to diagnosis of IBS
     35  DIAGNOSISROME DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA 3 month minimum of following symptoms in continuous or recurrent pattern Abdominal pain or discomfort relieved by BM & associated with either: Change in frequency of stools and/or Change in consistency of stools
     36  Two or more of following symptoms on 25% of occasions/days: Altered stool frequency >3 BMs daily or <3BMs/week Altered stool form Lumpy/hard or loose/watery Altered stool passage Straining, urgency, or feeling of incomplete evacuation Passage of mucus Feeling of bloating or abdominal distention
     37  DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Limited - R/O organic disease CBC with diff ESR Electrolytes BUN, creatinine TSH Stool for occult blood and O & P Flexible sigmoidoscopy
     38  MANAGEMENT Goals of management - exclude presence of underlying organic disease - provide support, support, & reassurance Dietary modification Pharmacotherapy Alternative therapies
     39  Physician consultation is indicated if initial treatment of IBS fails, if organic disease is suspected, and/or if the patient who presents with a change in bowel habits is over 50
     40  CHRONIC PANCREATITIS Alcohol major cause Malnutrition - outside US Patients >40 yrs with pancreatic dysfunction must be evaluated for pancreatic cancer Dysfunction between 20 to 40 yrs old R/O cystic fibrosis 50% of pts with chronic pancreatitis die within 25 yrs of diagnosis
     41  SYMPTOMS Pain - may be absent or severe, recurrent or constant Usually abdominal, sometimes referred upper back, anterior chest, flank Wt loss, diarrhea, oily stools N, V, or abdominal distention less reported
     42  DIAGNOSIS CBC Serum amylase (present during acuteattacks) Serum lipase Serum bilirubin Serum glucose Serum alkaline phosphatase Stool for fecal fat CT scan
     43  MANAGEMENT Should be comanaged with a specialist Pancreatic dysfunction - diabetes - steatorrhea & diarrhea - enzyme replacement
     44  DIVERTICULOSIS Uncomplicated disease, either asymptomatic or symptomatic Considered a deficiency disease of 20th century Western civilization Rare in first 4 decades - occurs in later years Incidence - 50% to 65% by 80 years
     45  SYMPTOMS 80% - 85% remain symptomless - found by diagnostic study for other reason Irregular defecation, intermittent abdominal pain, bloating, or excessive flatulence Change in stool - flattened or ribbonlike Recurrent bouts of steady or crampy pain May mimic IBS except older age
     46  DIAGNOSIS CBC Stool for occult blood Barium enema
     47  MANAGEMENT Increased fiber intake - 35 g/day Increase fiber intake gradually Avoid popcorn corn nuts seeds
     48  GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE Movement of gastric contents from stomach to esophagus May produce S & S within esophagus, pharynx, larynx, respiratory tract Most prevalent condition affecting GI tract About 15% of adults use antacid > 1x/wk
     49  SYMPTOMS Heartburn - most common (severity of does not correlate with extent of tissue damage) Burning, gnawing in mid-epigastrium worsens with recumbency Water brash (appearance of salty-tasting fluid in mouth because stimulate saliva secretion) Occurs after eating may be relieved with antacids (occurs within 1 hr of eating - usually large meal of day)
     50  Dysphagia & odynophagia predictive of severe disease Chest pain - may mimic angina Foods that may precipitate heartburn - high fat or sugar - chocolate, coffee, & onions - citrus, tomato-based, spicy Cigarette smoking and alcohol Aspirin, NSAIDS, potassium, pills
     51  DIAGNOSIS History of heartburn without other symptoms of serious disease Empiric trial of medication without testing Testing for those who do have persistent or unresponsive heartburn or signs of tissue injury CBC, H. pylori antibody Barium swallow Endoscopy for severe or atypical symptoms
     52  MANAGEMENT Lifestyle changes smoking cessation reduce ETOH consumption reduce dietary fat decreased meal size weight reduction elevate head of bed 6 inches
     53  elimination of medications that are mucosal irritants or that lower esophageal pressure avoidance of chocolate, peppermint, coffee, tea, cola beverages, tomato juice, citrus fruit juices avoidance of supine position for 2 hours after meal avoidance of tight fitting clothes
     54  MEDICATIONS Antacids with lifestyle changes may be sufficient H?-histamine receptor antagonists in divided doses approximately 48% of pts with esophagitis will heal on this regimen tid dosing more effective for symptom relief and healing long-term use is appropriate
     55  Proton pump inhibitors - prilosec & prevacid - once a day dosing - compared with H?RA have greater efficacy relieving symptoms & healing - treat moderate to severe for 8 wks - may continue with maintenance to prevent relapse
     56  MAINTENANCE THERAPY High relapse rate - 50% within 2 months, 82% within 6 months without maintenance If symptoms return after treatment need maintenance Full dose H?RA for most patients with nonerosive GERD Proton pump inhibitors for severe or complicated
     57  INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE Chronic inflammatory condition involving intestinal tract with periods of remission and exacerbation Two types Ulcerative colitis (UC) Crohn’s disease
     58  ULCERATIVE COLITIS Chronic inflammation of colonic mucosa Inflammation diffuse & continuous beginning in rectum May involve entire colon or only rectum (proctitis) Inflammation is continuous
     59  CROHN’S DISEASE Chronic inflammation of all layers on intestinal tract Can involve any portion from mouth to anus 30%-40% small intestine (ileitis) 40%-45% small & large intestine (ileocolitis) 15%-25% colon (Crohn’s colitis) Inflammation can be patchy
     60  Annual incidence of UC & Crohn’s similar in both age of onset & worldwide distribution About 20% more men have UC About 20% more women have Crohn’s Peak age of onset - between 15 & 25 yrs
     61  SYMPTOMS Both have similar presentations Abdominal pain may be only complaint and may have been intermittent for years Abdominal pain and diarrhea present in most pts Pain diffuse or localized to RLQ-LLQ Cramping sensation - intermittent or constant
     62  Tenesmus & fecal incontinence Stools loose and/or watery - may have blood Rectal bleeding common with colitis Other complaints - fatigue - weight loss - anorexia - fever, chills - nausea, vomiting - joint pains - mouth sores
     63  PHYSICAL EXAMINATION May be in no distress to acutely ill Oral apthous ulcers Tender lower abdomen Hyperactive bowel sounds Stool for occult blood may be + Perianal lesions Need to look for fistulas & abscesses
     64  DIAGNOSIS CBC Stool for culture, ova & parasites, C. difficile Stool for occult blood Flexible sigmoidoscopy - useful to determine source of bright red blood Colonoscopy with biopsy Endoscopy may show “skip” areas May be difficult to distinguish one from other
     65  MANAGEMENT Should be comanaged with GI 5-aminosalicylic acid products Corticosteroids Immunosuppressives Surgery
     66  DUODENAL ULCERS Incidence increasing secondary to increasing use of NSAIDs, H. pylori infections Imbalance both in amount of acid-pepsin production delivered form stomach to duodenum and ability of lining to protect self
     67  RISK FACTORS Stress Cigarette smoking COPD Alcohol Chronic ASA & NSAID use
     68  GENETIC FACTORS Zollinger-Ellison syndrome First degree relatives with disease Blood group O Elevated levels of pepsinogen I Presence of HLA-B5 antigen Decreased RBC acetylcholinesterase
     69  INCIDENCE About 16 million individuals will have during lifetime More common than gastric ulcers Peak incidence; 5th decade for men, 6th decade for women 75%-80% recurrence rate within 1yr of diagnosis without maintenance therapy >90% of duodenal ulcers caused by H.pylori
     70  SYMPTOMS Epigastric pain Sharp, burning, aching, gnawing pain occurring 1? - 3 hrs after meals or in middle of night Pain relieved with antacids or food Symptoms recurrent lasting few days to months Weight gain not uncommon
     71  DIAGNOSIS CBC Serum for H. pylori Stool for occult blood
     72  MANAGEMENT 2 week trial of antiulcer med - d/c NSAIDs If H. pylori present - treat If no H. pylori & symptoms do not resolve after 2 wks refer to GI for endoscopy Antiulcer meds H?RA; associated with 75%-90% healing over 4-6week period followed by 1 yr maintenance inhibits P-450 pathway; drug interactions
     73  MANAGEMENT (CONT) Proton pump inhibitors daily dosing documented improved efficacy over H?-RA blockers Prostagladin therapy - misoprostol use with individuals who cannot d/c NSAIDs
     74  GASTRIC ULCERS H. pylori identified in 65% to 75% of patients with non-NSAID use 5% - 25% of patients taking ASA/NSAID develop gastric ulcers (inhibits synthesis of prostaglandin which is critical for mucosal defense) Malignancy cause of
     75  OTHER RISK FACTORS Caffeine/coffee Alcohol Smoking First-degree relative with gastric ulcer
     76  SYMPTOMS Pain similar to duodenal but may be increased by food Location - LUQ radiating to back Bloating, belching, nausea, vomiting, weight loss NSAID-induced ulcers usually painless - discovered secondary to melena or iron deficiency anemia